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Define photosynthesis and explain chemical reactions of photosynthesis
- Conversion of light energy, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of chlorophyll to sugars with the release of oxygen.
- - Utilization of sunlight to make food.
- - Occurs in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.
Identify reactants and products of photosynthesis
- Two Steps of Photosynthesis Reactions
- 1.Light Dependent
- Also called light reaction/ Occurs in thylakoids (grana) of choroplasts.
- 2. Light Independent
- Also called dark reaction/ Occurs in stroma of chloroplasts.
Explain the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis.
Light absorption by various pigments. Pigments are located in thylakoids. There are two steps----Photosystem 2 and Photosystem 1.
Discuss photosystems 2
Photosynthetic unit (P680) is used. Light energy is absorbed by various pigments and passed to chlorophyll a. Molecules of water split, and electrons are excited. Oxygen is given off. Electrons pass through several electron carriers.
Discuss photosystem 1
Photosynthetic unit (P700) is used. Light energy is absorbed by various pigments and passed to chlorophyll a. Again, electrons become excited. Electrons pass through several electron carriers and lastly captured by NADP to form NADPH.
ATP is formed from light energy. Occurs during light dependent reaction. Hydrogen ions from water provide gradient for production of ATP.
Explain the light independent reaction of photosynthesis.
Also called Calvin Cycle or Carbon Fixation. Production of organic molecules from carbon dioxide. Cyclic reaction.
Define photosynthetic units and explain light absorption.
Conglomerate of various pigments that absorb light energy. Includes chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, and xanthophylls. Two types- P700 and P680. Various pigments may absorb light energy is always transferred to chlorophyll a.
Rubisco often binds to O2 rather than CO2. Occurs on hot, dry, sunny days when stomata close and the O2 in the leaf exceeds that of CO2. Photosynthetic output is decreased. ATP is not produced. Many plants have photosynthetic adaptations to prevent photorespiration. C4 and CAM
Compare C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis
- C3 is your typical green plant
- C4 is your perennial grasses
- CAM is found in desert species
Define and explain the cell cycle
Life cycle of cells; growth and reproduction of cells. Consists of Interphase, Mitosis or Meiosis
Define and explain interphase
- 1. Interphase
- Stage of cell cycle during which DNA synthesis occurs and the nucleus is not actively dividing
Name and describe the three steps of interphase.
- 1.G1- cell growth; many organelles duplicate
- 2. S- DNA replicates
- 3. G2- cell prepares for mitosis or meiosis; enzymes and membranes are produced.
Define and recognize chromosomes
Linear sequences of genes composed of DNA and proteins.
Explain haploid and diploid cells
- -Haploid is one set of chromosomes.
- -Diploid is two sets of chromosomes
Explain the association between chromatin and chromosomes.
Fibrous complex of DNA wrapped aroud proteins. Supercoils to form chromsomes.
Define and explain mitosis
The multistep process in eukaryotic cells that results in cell division with the separation of the duplicated chromosomes. - Cell division for growth and maintenance - Asexual reproduction.
Recognize and describe each stage of mitosis