Bonding and Structure

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Anonymous
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110544
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Bonding and Structure
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2011-10-20 09:47:22
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Bonding structure chemistry
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Higher Chemistry - Bonding and Structure
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  1. Describe metallic bonding
    Metallic bonding is when there is a lattice of positvely charged ions surrounded by delocalised electrons
  2. What holds a metallic bond together?
    The electrostatic attractions (the attraction between the postive ions and the delocalised electrons)
  3. Describe covalent bonding
    Covalent bonding is the common attraction between two postive nuclei and the pair of shared electrons
  4. Describe ionic bonding
    Ionic bonding is the force of attraction bewtween oppositely charged ions
  5. Covalent, ionic and metallic are ______ bonds?
    strong
  6. When do polar covalent bonds arise?
    When the difference in electronegativity values is not so great as to lead to typically ionic bonds
  7. In the polar covalent bonds are the electrons shared equally?
    No
  8. A molecule is described as polar if it has a _____ dipole?
    permanent
  9. In polar molecules, are the polar bonds arranged symmetrically in the molecule?
    NO
  10. Give an example of a polar molecule
    Water (H2O)
  11. Give an example of a non-polar molecule that contains polar bonds
    Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  12. What are van der waal's forces?
    Van der waal's forces are intermolecular forces of attraction
  13. What kind of dipoles are found in molecules that have van der waal's forces?
    Temporary dipoles
  14. The strength of van der waal's forces ______ with increasing molecular mass?
    increases
  15. Are van der waal's forces stronger or weaker than covalent bonds?
    Weaker
  16. Describe hydrogen bonding
    Hydrogen bonds are electrostatic forces of attraction between molcules containing highly polar bonds
  17. Which kind of elements form these hydrogen bonds?
    • Hydrogen and either:
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Fluorine
  18. Put these bonds in order going from weakest to strongest: ionic, polar-covalent, van der waal's, hydrogen
    van der waal's, hydrogen, polar-covalent, ionic
  19. Of the first twenty elements in the periodic table, which have a metallic lattice structure?
    • Lithium (Li)
    • Sodium (Na)
    • Potassium (K)
    • Beryllium (Be)
    • Magnesium (Mg)
    • Calcium (Ca)
    • Aluminium (Al)
  20. Of the first twenty elements in the periodic table, which have a covalent network structure?
    • Hydrogen (H)
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Fluorine (F)
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Sulphur (S)
    • Chlorine (Cl)
  21. Of the first twenty elements in the periodic table, which are covlanent network gases and which are covalent network solids?
    • Gases:
    • Hydrogen (H)
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Fluorine (F)
    • Chlorine (Cl)

    • Solids:
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Sulphur (S)
  22. Of the first twenty elements in the periodic table, which have a covalent network structure?
    • Boron (B)
    • Silicon (Si)
    • Carbon (C)
  23. Of the first twenty elements in the periodic table, which have a monatomic?
    • Helium (He)
    • Neon (Ne)
    • Argon (Ar)
  24. In diamond, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to ____ other carbon atoms?
    four
  25. In graphite each atom is covalently bonded to _____ other carbon atoms?
    three
  26. Why is carbon in the form of graphite a conductor of electricity?
    As each carbon atom is only covalently bonded to three other carbon atoms, meaning there are delocalised electrons to conduct the electricity
  27. In a fullerene, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to _____ other carbon atoms?
    three
  28. Why are fullerenes not conductors of electricity?
    As the delocalised electrons are contained within each discrete molecule
  29. Give an example of an ionic compound
    • sodium chloride
    • lithium chloride
  30. Give an example of a covalent molecular compound
    • sulphur dioxide
    • carbon dioxide
  31. Give an example of a covalent network compound
    • silicon dioxide
    • silicon carbide
  32. What is silicon carbide used for?
    Cutting and grinding as it is very hard and has a similar structure to diamond
  33. Why do covalent substances have high melting and boiling points?
    As it is strong covalent bonds that have to be broken eg silicon dioxide
  34. Why do covalent molecular substance have low melting and boiling points?
    As it is weak van der waal's forces that have to be broken eg carbon dioxide
  35. Why are the boiling points of ammonia and water much higher than expected?
    As they contain hydrogen bonding between molecules
  36. Why does water becomes less dense when it freezes?
    As hydrogen bonding makes the water molecules form an open lattice with the molecules further apart than water
  37. The more hydrogen bonds in the molecules the ____ viscous the substance will be?
    more
  38. Polar covalent bonds and ionic crystals dissolve in...?
    polar water molecules
  39. Non-polar substances dissolves in...?
    non-polar substances such as carbon tetrachloride

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