CHEM 1211 CH. 6

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  1. Ionic Bonds
    loss of electrons by a metal

    gain of electrons by a nonmetal
  2. Covalent bonds
    sharing of electrons
  3. octet
    8 valence electons

    associated with the stability of the noble gases
  4. Metals
    form positive ions by loss of their valence electrons

    fewer electrons then protons
  5. nonmetals
    • achieve an octete arrangement
    • gain electrons
    • Negatively charged
  6. Naming positive ions end in
  7. naming negative ions end in
  8. Ionic compounds
    • consist of + and - ions
    • have attractions called ionic bonds
    • have high melting and boiling points
    • are solids at room temperture
  9. Ionic formula
    • Neutral because it consists of + and -
    • net charge of zero
    • uses subscripts to indicate the number of ions needed to give charge balance
  10. Transition metals that only form on ion
    Zn2+,Ag+, Cd2+
  11. Polyatomic Ion
    group of atoms

    has an overall ionic charge
  12. Diatomic elements
    share electrons to form diatomic, covalent molecules
  13. Covalent Compounds
    All nonmetals
  14. Organic Compund
    • a compound with one or more C atoms
    • has many H atoms
    • may also contain O,S,N,P, and halogens

    • Covalent bonds
    • Low melting and boiling points & flammable
  15. VSEPR Theory
    predicts that a carbon atom with four single, covalent bonds is tetrahedral
  16. Alkanes
    • nonpolar
    • less dense than water
    • 1-4 C atoms: gas
    • 5-8 C atoms:liquids at room temp.
    • 9-17 C atoms: liquids such as diesel
    • 18 or more C atoms: waxy solids
  17. expanded structure formula
    each bond from the C atom to the attached H atoms is shown

    to show each bond
  18. condensed structural formula
    each C atom is combined with its attached H atoms

    show each carbon atoms and its attached hydrogen atoms
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CHEM 1211 CH. 6
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