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  1. Flowers are ___ leaves which contain specialized organs, ovaries and anthers, in which ___ occurs forming gametes, eggs and spern nuclei. (angiosperms)
    • -modified
    • -meiosis
  2. The ___ is where sexual reproduction occurs in angiosperms.
  3. Sexual reproduction consists of two parts, ___ and ___.
    Pollination, Double Fertilization
  4. What are the 4 main parts of a flower?
    • 1. Sepals
    • 2. Petals
    • 3. Carpals (pistils)
    • 4. Stamens
  5. How many whorls of modified leaves does a flower have?
  6. What is fragmentation?
    Fragmentation is one of the most common methods of asexual reproduction in angiosperms. What happens is a large spreading or vining plants grows to several meters in length, and individual parts become self sufficient by establishing adventitious roots.
  7. Gametes are haploid or diploid?
  8. Sporophytes are always ___
  9. What is meant by alteration of generations
    Look in Book
  10. Does secondary growth occur in flowers?
  11. The stalk of a flower is called the ___
  12. The ___ is the part of the flower where the other flower parts attach at the very end of the axis.
  13. What are complete flowers?
    A complete flower is one that contains all four main parts that a typical flower has: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpals.
  14. What are incomplete flowers?
    Incomplete flowers are those that are lacking some of the basic parts of a flower. Example a flower lacking sepals and or petals.
  15. What are sepals?
    Sepals are the lowermost and outermost of the four floral appendages. They are modified leaves that surround and enclose the other flower parts as they mature. Sepals are typicall the toughers and waxiest parts of a flower.
  16. What is a calx?
    A calyx is what all of the sepals are referred to as a whole.
  17. What are petals and what do they do?
    Petals are located on the receptacle of a flower above the sepals, which makes up the corolla. Petals are important for attracting the correct pollinators.
  18. What are stamens?
    Stamens are located above the petals, and are known collectively as androecium. Stamens are known as the male part of the flower because they produce pollen. Stamens have 2 parts, the filament and the anther. The filament is the stalk and the anther is where the pollen is actually produced.
  19. The anther is composed of ___ cells.
  20. What are carpels?
    Carpels constitute the gynoecium, located at the highest level on the receptacle. Carpels have three main parts: the stigma, the style, and the ovary.
  21. The ___ catches pollen grains and is part of the ___
    stigma, carpels
  22. The ___ elevates the stigma to a useful position.
  23. The ___ is where megaspores are produced.
  24. What are microsporangium?
    Microsporangium is a sporangium that produces spores that give rise to male gametophytes. In gymnosperms and angiosperms (flowering plants), the microsporangium produce the microsporocyte, also known as the microspore mother cell, which then creates four mocrospores through meiosis.
  25. What is a Microspore Mother Cell?
    In heterosporous species, a cell that undergoes meiosis, resulting in 4 microspores.
  26. What is a tube nucleus?
    One of the two nuclei formed by mitotic division of a microspore during the formation of a pollen grain that is held to control the subsequent growth of the pollen tube and that does not divide again.
  27. What is the generative nucleus?
    Generative nucleus are one of the two nuclei resulting from the first division in the pollen grain of a seed plant that gives rise to sperm nuclei.
  28. What is a protein pollen coat?
  29. What is tapetum?
    The tapetum is a layer of cells that is found within the pollen sac, a nutritive tissue within the sporangium, particularly within the anther. Tapetum is important in the development of pollen grains.
  30. What is double fertilization?
    It is a complex fertilization mechanism that angiosperms have developed. The process begins with the joining of a female gametophyte, with two male gametes.
  31. What is a pollen tube?
    Once pollen grain has landed on a stigma, it germinates by producing a pollen tube that penetrates into loose tissue of stigma.
  32. How many leaf types are there and what are they called?
    • 1. Xerophytic
    • 2. Mesophytic
    • 3. Hydrophytic
  33. What type of cell division occurs when the generative nucleus divides to form sperm?
  34. How many sperm nuclei are formed?
    2 sperm cells
  35. The zygote divides by ___ to form an embryo.
  36. What three parts make up the embryo?
    • 1. Cotyledon
    • 2. Epicotyl
    • 3. Hypocotyl
  37. This develops above the cotyledon and forms the stem.
  38. This develops below the cotyledon and forms the root.
  39. What does endosperm do?
    Endosperm is a tissue that will provide nourishment for a germinating and growing embryo from a seed until if becomes autotrophic.
  40. What parts make up the seed?
    • 1. Embryo
    • 2. Endosperm
    • 3. Seed Coat
  41. What is a simple fruit?
    A simple fruit is derived of a single carpel or several fused carpels.
  42. What is an aggregate?
    Aggregates are derived from single flowers and have many pistils

    Example: raspberries, black berries, and strawberries
  43. What is a multiple fruit?
    They are derived from many flowers

    Example: pineapples, mulberries, osage orange
  44. What are the 3 types of simple fruits?
    • 1. Berries: flesh is soft throughout (tomato, peppers, grapes)
    • 2. Drupes: inner part is hard or stony pit (peach, cherries, plums)
    • 3. Pomes: fleshy part comes from floral parts and inner core is textured (apple, pear)
  45. What part of the flower develops into the fruit?
  46. What part of a flower develops into the seed coat?
    Ripened Ovule
  47. What part of the flower does the embyro come from?
  48. What kind of fruits are seedless?
  49. What is the term for seeds with no fertilization?
  50. What is a complete flower?
    Contains all 4 flower parts: sepals, pistils. stamens, carpels.
  51. What is an incomplete flower?
    Lacking any of the four main flower parts.
  52. What is a perfect flower?
    Contains at least the stamen and carpel (pistil)
  53. What is an imperfect flower?
    Contains either a stamen or carpel (pistil).

    • -male staminate flowers
    • -female carpellate flowers
  54. What are Monoecious Plants?
    Plants which contain imperfect flowers, both male and female flowers, on the same plant.

    Example: corn
  55. What are Dioecious Plants?
    Plant which contains imperfect flowers, male or female flowers, on separate plant.

    Example: holly tree
  56. Flowering plants, the most recently evolved and most derived of all plant froups, are calssified together as a single division ___
  57. Are all gymnosperms woody?
  58. Describe "Subclass Arecidae"
    Palms, philodendron (spadix- male flowers are at tip; female flowers are near base) surrounded by spathe.
  59. Describe "Subclass Commelinidae"
    Grasses, sedge, zebrina, spiderwort.
  60. Describe "Subclass Zingiberidae"
    Bromeliads, Banana
  61. Describe "Subclass Liliidae"
    Lilies, Orchids
  62. Which dicot subclass has the largest number of families?
  63. Are sporophytes diploid or haploid?
  64. Plant spores cannot undergo syngamy, but each undergoes mitosis and grows into entire new haploid plant called a ___
  65. Gametes are formed by the haploid plants by ___, not by ___.
    Mitosis, Meiosis
  66. There are male and female plant gametes. Which one is male and which one is female.
    Microgametophytes = Male

    Megagametophytes = Female
  67. What is meant by alteration of generations?
    A life cycle like flowers in which has a sporophye and a gametophyte generation.
  68. What is the central mass of an ovule called?
  69. How do megaspores and microspores differ?
    The ovule and the carpel do not dehisce and the megaspore remains enclosed inside the carpel.
  70. An ovule develops into a ___ after its egg is fertilized.
  71. What do microspores develop into?
  72. Within the ovule the surviving ___ develops into a megagametophyte.
  73. Microgametophyte Formation Flow Chart
    • 1. Megasporocyte
    • meiosis
    • 2. One megaspore; 3 small dead cells
    • mitosis 3X
    • 3. Eight nuclei in 1 cell
    • wall formation
    • 4. Three antipodal cells (haploid)
    • Two polar nuclei in central cell (each haploid)
    • Two synergid cells (haploid)
    • One egg cell (haploid)
  74. With a fruit, while the ovule develops into a seed, the ___ matures into the fruit.
  75. What is the exocarp?
    The outer layer, the skin or peel
  76. What is mesocarp?
    The middle layer, or flesh
  77. What is the endocarp?
    The innermost layer, may be tough like the stones or pit of a cherry or it may be thin.
  78. What is the pericarp?
    The entire fruit wall, wheter composed of one, two, or all three layers.
  79. What occurs during the S phase of mitosis?
    Growth and DNA Replication
  80. What occurs during G1 phase of mitosis?
  81. What occurs during G2 phase of mitosis?
    Growth and final preparations for division.
  82. What does a sunken stoma indicate?
    A sunken stoma is characteristic of xerophytic plants. Vegetative buds turn into leaves and stems.
  83. Within a leaf, what are veins?
    Bundles of vascular tissue.
  84. What is mesophyl?
    The ground tissue interior to the leaf epidermis
  85. What is the main phtosynthetic tissue in most plants?
    palisade parenchyma
  86. Describe the spongy mesophyl.
    It is located in the lower portion of the leaf, and permits carbon dioxide to diffuse rapidly away from the tomata into all parts of the leafs interior.
  87. What are hydrophytes?
    Hydrophytes are plants that have become adapted to living in aquatic environments.
  88. What are mesophytes?
    Mesophytes are plants that have neither adapted to extreme wet or dry environments. They are in the middle.
  89. What is a xerophyte?
    A xerophyte is a plant that has adapted to living in very dry environments.
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