Chem midterm

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Chem midterm
2011-10-23 10:40:32
Chem midterm

Chem midterm
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  1. What is the normal range for blood sugar?
    65-120 mg/dl
  2. What is the normal range for blood urea nitrogen (BUN)?
    8-18 mg/dl
  3. What is the normal range for total cholesterol?
    <200 mg/dl
  4. What is the normal range for serum albumin?
    3.5-5.2 g/dl
  5. What is the normal range for TOTAL bilirubin?
    0-1.0 mg/dl
  6. What is the normal range for serum creatinine?
    0.5-1.5 mg/dl
  7. What is the normal range for serum protein?
    6-8 g/dl
  8. What reagent is used in the glucose condensation method?
  9. What method is used in the Jaffe creatinine method?
    Picric Acid
  10. What reagent is used in the colorimetric uric acid method?
  11. What reagent is used in the fearon (DAM) BUN method?
    Diacetyl Monoxime
  12. What common reagent / substrate is used in the ALT & AST UV kinetic methods?
    Alpha KG
  13. Compared to normal, what does a serum AST level of 25 IU/L represent?
  14. What is the principle of the biuret reaction for total protein?
    • Colorimetric
    • Reagent reacts with 3 peptide bonds and protein.
    • Blue green color.
  15. In what reaction does ammonia react with phenol & sodium hypochlorite?
    What is the end product formed?
    • Berthelot.
    • End product is Indophenol Blue.
  16. Under what condition does a maximum urea clearance occur?
    When urine volume is greater than 2 ml per minute.
  17. In serum electrophoresis, where does each protein fraction migrate?
    • Towards anode
    • Neg--> Positive
  18. pI is what?
    Point at which protein cannot aquire or donate a hydrogen ion and movement stops.
  19. In a set of numbers, what is the mean value?
    Arithmatic average
  20. In a set of numbers, what is the median value?
    middle number
  21. In a set of numbers what is the mode value?
    Value that occurs most often?
  22. In the glucose oxidase procedure, what does peroxidase do?
    • Liberates hydrogen in peroxide.
    • Oxidised dye.
    • Pale yellow to pink
  23. What is the end product is measured in the hexokinase method for glucose?
    • Change in absorbence to NAD
    • NAD-->NADH
  24. What enzyme converts urea to ammonia?
  25. What is accuracy?
    Closest to true value.
  26. What is precision?
  27. Name the dye used in the dye binding methods for serum albumin.
    Bromocresol Green
  28. What does an elevated serum aldolase indicate?
    Muscular disorders
  29. In quality control, what % of the population will fall within +/- 2 SD?
  30. In quality control what percent of the population will fall outside of +/- 2sd?
  31. In the copper reduction methods for measurment of glucose, what end product is measured?
    molybdenum blue
  32. What is the pH at which protein electrophoresis in performed?
  33. What does an elevated uric acid test indicate?
  34. Where does Urea come from?
    Breakdown of amino acids?
  35. Where does uric acid come from?
    Breakdown of purines
  36. Where does creatinine come from?
  37. What enzyme oxidizes malate to oxalacetate?
    Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH)
  38. What is the substrate specific for ALT (SGPT)?
  39. What substrate is specific for AST (SGOT)?
  40. What is the threshold value for glucose?
    • The point at which glucose spills over into the urine.
    • 160-180 mg/dl
  41. What is diazo reagent?
    Sodium Nitroprusside(NaNO3) & Sulfanilic Acid
  42. Where is bilirubin conjugated?
    To what substance?
    Bilirubin is conjugated in the liver to glucaronic acid.
  43. What is total bilirubin used to asses?
    Liver function
  44. What is the clinical significance of an elevated serum AST (SGOT)?
    10- 20 X NL
    Viral Hepatitis
  45. What is the clinical significance of an elevated serum AST and serum ALT?
  46. What is the principle for the colorimetric method for the measurement of serum globulin?
    Tryptophan & Glyoxylic Acid
  47. Of the 3 bilirubin fractions, what fraction is not measured directly, but calculated?
    Indirect or unconjugated bilirubin.
  48. What is the principle for the automated methods for measurement of triglyceride?
  49. What enzyme converts ammonia to BUN?
  50. What enzyme converts uric acid to Allantoin and CO2?
  51. What chemical reagent in reduced in the colorimetric method for the measurement for uric acid?
    phosphotungstic acid
  52. What lipoprotein fraction has the lowest density?
    HDL (closest to anode)
  53. What serum contituent is measured by the Liebermann-Buchard reaction?
  54. Highest density lipoprotein?
    What does electrophoresis look like?
    • Polymicrons
    • No bump unless disease state
  55. What accelerator reagent is used in the Jendarassik-Groff bilirubin method?
  56. What lab test can be used to asses fetal lung maturity?
    • L/S ratio
    • >2 is good
  57. What disease state is associated with an elevated total protein and albumin?
  58. What diseases are associated with an elevated blood ammonia?
    • Coma.
    • Reye's Syndrome.
  59. What reagents are used in the Jaffe Creatinine method?
    Picric Acid
  60. What is the color reagent in the fearon reaction for BUN?
    DAM (diacetyl monoxime)
  61. What is the value of measuring pseudocholinesterase?
    • Pesticide poisoning
    • Decreased means positive for poisoning
  62. Where are H20, K, glucose & amino acids reabsorbed?
    Renal proximal tubules
  63. What is the purpose of a reagent blank?
    Set absorbance to zero for initial reagent used.
  64. What symptoms are associated with diabetes mellitus?
    • Increased Thirst
    • Weight Loss
    • Dry Mouth
  65. What are the patient preperation steps for a 3 hour oral glucose tolerance test?
    • Fast for 10 hours.
    • Eat normally for three days prior (120 carb diet)
  66. What is glycosylated HgB?
    • A1C
    • Glucose reacts with HgB.
  67. What are the 2 enzymes in the UV kinetic method for glucose?
    • Hexokinase and
    • G6PD (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase)
  68. What is delta bilirubin?
    Bilirubin covalently bound to albumin
  69. What conditions, diseases or disorders will elevate only the unconjugated bilirubin fraction?
    • HDN
    • Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions
    • Erythroblastosis Fetalis
    • Kinicterus
  70. What does the term R 4S mean?
    The value crosses 4 SD lines form one value to the next.
  71. What does the term 2 2S
    2 values outside 2S mark
  72. What is the significance of
    BUN: 60
    Creatinine: 3.0
    Kidney Failure
  73. What is the principle for nephelometry- what does it measure?
    Forward light scatter
  74. Why are creatinine clearences corrected for body surface area?
    What is the correction factor formula?
    Corrected for different body types.
  75. What is the clinical significance of an elevated blood ammonia?
    Liver problems
  76. How is glucose stored?
    Where does it occur?
    • Glucogen in cells.
    • Converted by the liver.
  77. What are th principle parts of a spectophotometer?
    • Light source
    • monocrometer
    • Cuvette well
    • selecter
    • Detector
    • read out
  78. What is the migration pattern for lipoproteins?
    What are the least and most dense fractions?
    • Positive to negative (cathode to anode)
    • Most dense Polymicrons
    • Least dense Pre Betas
  79. Lipids are?
    Esters-Fatty Acids
  80. Lipase does what?
    Pancreatic lipase breaks down lipids.