Biology Unit 2

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  1. List the three parts of the modern cell theory
    • 1. Cells are the smallest working units of living things
    • 2. All living things are made of cells
    • 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
  2. Contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
    • Prokaryotic
    • small
    • no membrane bound organelles
    • no nucleus
    • non specialized
    • independant
    • Eukaryotic
    • larger cells
    • membrane bound organelles
    • true nucleus
    • specialized
    • dependant
  3. give examples of pro and eukaryotic cells
    • pro bacteria
    • eukaryotic animals, humans, everything but bacteria
  4. What is the product of the "cell factory"? What do cells need in order to build this product?
    proteins they need amino acids which come from us eating proteins in order to make proteins for us
  5. Describe the structure of the phospholipid bilayer
    a semi\-permeable layer made up of two layers of phospholipids
  6. Contrast the three different cell membrane proteins
    • Receptor proteins sends messages or hormones between cells.
    • marker proteins gives the cell and identity
    • channel proteins allows molecules to pass through into the cell
  7. Cytoplasm
    jell like substance in cells made of cytsol and water contains the organelles
  8. Cytoskeleton
    thin tubes and fillaments in the cell giving support and also used as a series of internal tracks
  9. Mitochondria
    supplies the cell with energy makes ATP almost all is inherited from mother
  10. Nucleus
    contains the chromatin or instructions to making proteins
  11. Chromatin
    is DNA
  12. Chomosomes
    condensed chromatin 46 of them in each cell
  13. Ribosomes
    used to construct proteins
  14. Endoplasmic reticulum
    carries proteins out of the cell and makes phospholipids
  15. Golgi body
    prepares the proteins for shipment out of the cell
  16. Lysosomes
    • break down large molecules
    • repairs damaged cells
    • destroys cell parts that are beyond repair (autophagy)
    • if a cell dies it digests the entire cell (autolysis)
  17. Chloroplasts
    contains thylakoids which contain chlorophyll only in plant cells
  18. Vacuoles
    store water, nutrients, and sometimes store toxins
  19. Contrast autophagy and autolysis
    • autophagy is when the lysosome eats just a disfunctional part
    • autolysis is when the lysosome digests the entire cell if it dies
  20. Contrast the cell wall and a cell membrane
    cell membrane is made up of phospholipids and it is semi-permeable. The cell wall is harder and sturdier
  21. Contrast plant and animal cells
    plant cells have a cell wall and a cell membrane animal cells just have membranes plant cells have chloroplasts and central vacuoles animal cells do not
  22. Endosymbiotic theory
    the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts once lived independantly and they eventually became part of our cells.
  23. Contrast autotropic and heterotrophic
    heterotrophics are cells that cannot make their own food becuase they do not have chlorophyll in them autotrophics can make their own food usually thru photosynthesis
  24. Describe the process of photosynthesis
    the plant absorbs water and takes in carbon dioxide and then the chlorophyll traps the sunlight and the plant transforms it into glucose and oxygen gas
  25. Contrast solution, solute, and solvent
    a solution is a solute dissolved into a solvent the solute is the thing getting dissolved the solvent does the dissolving
  26. define concentration
    the amount of solute dissolved into solvent
  27. contrast diffusion and osmosis
    diffusion is the movment of molecules from high to low concentration osmosis is exclusivly water moving high to low concentration
  28. Contrast hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic
    • hypotonic is an environment in which a cell will grow and swell up
    • hypertonic it will shrink because of the amount of pure water in the cells and the amount of pure water around it
    • isotonic will stay the same
  29. What is osmosis/turgur pressure?
    the pressure that builds up in a cell due to a hypotonic environment turgor pressure is osmotic pressure in plants
  30. Define plasmolysis. What kind of environment causes this to happen?
    it is when a plant cell shrinks very small and shrivels up this occurs in a hypertonic environment
  31. Contrast diffusion and facilitated diffusion
    diffusion is when molecules pass freely through the cell membrane facilitated diffusion is when the molecule is too large and it has to use a channel protein to get through
  32. Contrast endocytosis and exocytosis
    • endocytosis is the taking in large amounts of food by active transpot
    • exocytosis is the forcing out contents by active transport
  33. Contrast active and passive transport
    • active requires energy
    • passive does not it is just a function that happens
  34. Contrast phagocytosis and pinocytosis
    • phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis it is when the cell takes in food
    • pinocytosis is also endocytosis but it is when the cell takes in a liquid
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Biology Unit 2
Biology Unit 2
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