Bio: Kingdon Animalia

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katemarie23
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11073
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Bio: Kingdon Animalia
Updated:
2010-03-18 00:28:17
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bio unit 7
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kingdom animalia
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  1. Phyla: Cnidaria
    • - have tissues
    • - have radial symmetry
    • - are carnivores that use tentacles with stinging cells to capture prey
    • - have extracellular digestion
    • - have to body forms: Medusa and Polyp (polyps are sessile)
  2. Phyla: Porifera
    • - cell recognition
    • - are the simplest animals
    • - most are marine (ocean dwelling)
    • - body wall is penetrated by many pores
    • - asymmetrical
    • - lack tissues and organs
    • - nutrition: filter feeding and then intracellular digestion
    • - tend to be sessile (lifestyle: attached to a surface and does not move)
    • - are capable of regeneration
  3. Phyla: Platyhelminthes
    • - have mesoderm (and tissues organized into organs)
    • - have bilateral symmetry
    • - simplest animals to have organs
    • - lack respiratory and circulatory systems
    • - have a branched gastrovascular cavity
    • - show cephalization
    • - are thin because they are acoelomate
    • - some are free-living but some are parasitic

    • THREE MAJOR CLASSES:
    • Turbellaria Ex. Dugestia (planarian)
    • Cestoda Ex. tapeworms
    • - are parasites that attach to the inside of the intestines
    • - are composed of sections called proglottids
    • - the scolex (head) has hooks and suckers for attachment
    • Trematoda Ex. flukes
    • - are parasites (some are endoparasites and others extoparasites)
    • may have a tegument and suckers
    • - complex life cycles involving more than one host
    • - lack well developed digestive system
  4. Phyla: Nematoda
    • - have a pseudocoelom
    • - have a long, slender body tapered at both ends
    • - have a one-way gut (***more efficient than the flatworms)
    • - most are free-living
    • - some are parasites
  5. Phyla: Rotifera
    • - often found at the bottoms of lakes and ponds
    • - have cilia surrounding the mouth
  6. Phyla: Mollusca
    • - have a true coelom
    • - most have bilateral symmetry
    • - many have one or more shells called valves
    • - have organ sustems: circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory
    • - three-part body plan: muscular foot, head, and visceral mass

    • THREE CLASSES:
    • Gastropods (snails and slugs)
    • Bivalves (clams, oysters, and scallops)
    • Cephalopods (octopuses and squids)
  7. Phyla: Annelids
    • - segmented bodies
    • - have a true coelom
    • - have complex organ systems (Ex. nephridia for excretion)
    • - most have setae (bristles) and some have parapodia (fleshy appendages)
    • - respiration occurs through a moist body surface
    • - their poop is called castings
    • - have bilateral symmetry
    • THREE CLASSES:
    • Poluchaeta (marine worms)
    • Oligochaeta (earthworms) **important for their aerating and fertilizing the soil
    • Hirudinea (leeches)
  8. Phyla: Arthropoda
    • - very successful phylum (mare than half of all named species!)
    • - two large groups based on mouthparts:
    • Madibultes (have jaws)
    • Chelicerates (have fangs and pincers)
    • - jointed appendages **gives flexibility
    • - segmented bodies
    • larval (immature) for has individual segments
    • adult has segments fused into usites: head, thorax, and abdomen
    • - have a coelom
    • - have a strong exoskeleton made of chitin (it is shed suring molting, or ecdysis)
    • functions: protection
    • body shape and support
    • muscle attachment
    • impedes water loss
    • drawback: brittle and cannot support great weight, therefore arthropods are not of great size
    • - many have compound eyes
    • - most terrestrial types have: spiracles (openings for breathing)
    • Malpighian tubules (excretory units)
    • - open circulatory system
    • - many have wings
  9. Phyla: Echinodermata
    • - have a coelom
    • - have an endoskeleton (internal skeleton)
    • - embryotic development is a deuterostome (like the chordates)
    • - adults have a five-part body plan
    • - have a water vascular system to aid movement
  10. Phyla: invertebrate chordates
    • - have a coelom
    • - have an endoskeleton
    • - embryonic development is a deuterostome
    • - have a notochord during development
    • - have a single, hollow, dorsal nerve cord with nerves attached
    • - have a series of pharyngeal slits (openings) that develop in the pharynx
    • - have a postanal tail at some point in development
  11. What is an invertebrate?
    an animal lacking a backbone
  12. Are invertebrates present on earth in significant numbers?
    yes
  13. More than half of all names species are in what physlum?
    arthropoda
  14. What are the levels of organization in a more complex animal?
    calls, tussues, organs, and systems
  15. What is symmetry?
    arrangment of body parts
  16. What kind of symmetry do more complex animals have?
    bilateral
  17. What are the directional terms used for bilateral symmetry?
    Dorsal, Ventral, Anterior, Posterior
  18. What is a coelom?
    a fluid-filled space found between the body wall and the digestive tract
  19. What are the advantages of a coelom?
    it provides an internal space where mesoderm and endoderm can be in contact with each other during embryonic development; internal organs can move when the outside cant
  20. What are the basic characteristics of animals?
    • - heterotrophs
    • - have mobility by way of muscle cells
    • - multicellular
    • - ingest and the digest their food
    • - most reproduce sexually
    • - most form a blastula during development, with later development of 3 primary germ/tissue layers
  21. What are the basic characteristics of animal cells?
    • - eukaryotic
    • - diploid (with haploid sex cells)
    • - flexible cells that lack cell walls
    • - most have cells arranged into tissues
    • - property of cell recognition
  22. What are the basic characteristics of sponges?
    • - most are marine
    • - their obdy wall is penetrated by many pores
    • - asymmetrical
    • - lack tissues and organs
    • - filter feeding and then intracellular digestions
    • - sessiles
    • capacle of regeneration
    • - simplest animal
    • - cell recognition
  23. What are the embryonic cell layers called?
    mesoderm, ectoderm, endoderm
  24. Why are earthworms of such importance to the ecology of the soil?
    aeration, fertilization, neutralize pH
  25. What is respiration?
    how the animals exchange gasses
  26. What factors must be present for respiration to occur?
    large surface area, moist surface area, large number of blood vessels, and oxygen supply
  27. What are the typical functions of an exoskeleton?
    protection
  28. Compare the digestive systems of a Planarian and a more complex worm.
    the planarian has a "sac" and only has one opening; the more complex worm has a "tube within a tube" and has 2 openings
  29. What do we mean by the term "Tube within a Tube?"
    it has 2 openings. a "mouth" and a butt
  30. How is a "tube within a tube" more efficient?
    it doesnt mix whats coming in with whats coming out
  31. What is the difference between an "open" and a "closed" circulatory system?
    in an open circulatory system, a heart pumps fluid containing oxygen and nutriends through series of cessels out into a cavity, but in a closed circulatory system, a heart pumpes blood to vessels that permit blood flow from heart to body and back again
  32. What kind of circulatory system does and insect have?
    open
  33. What kind of circulatory system does and Earthworm have?
    closed
  34. Are arthropods segmented?
    no
  35. What are the body regions in a typical adult insect?
    head, thorax, and abdomen
  36. What are the two basic features of an echinoderm that are more similar to vertebrates than to invertebrates?
    • - have a coelom
    • - have an endoskeleton
  37. What is the medical use of leeches?
    they suck blood, so if they need to give blood to you, and have the old suck out or keep the blood flowing, they use it
  38. If an organism is a successful parasite, what features might it have?
    hooks and suckers

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