Chemistry Chapter 3 Quiz

The flashcards below were created by user karmwood96 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. "Laughing Philosopher"
  2. What contributions did Democritus make?
    • Atoms are the smallest unit piece of matter
    • "Atomos"
  3. What does the Democritus's model say/look like?
    • Shape/size depend on object.
    • Basic shapes.
    • ex. circle, square, triangle
  4. Who is the father of modern atomic theory?
  5. Father of modern atomic theory
  6. His experiement dealt with combining elements to form compounds?
  7. What contributions did Dalton make?
    • Said element are the same shape and had the same matching atoms. (Later found false)
    • Atoms are combined in whole number rations to make compounds
  8. Said element are the same shape and had the same matching atoms. (Later found false)

    Atoms are combined in whole number rations to make compounds
    Dalton's Contributions.
  9. Whose experiment...
    combined elements to form compounds?
  10. All matter has atoms

    The atom is an indivisible sphere
    Dalton's model
  11. What did Dalton's model say?
    • All matter had atoms
    • The atom was an indivisible sphere
  12. Improved Dalton's theory.
  13. What was Thomson's experiment?
    Cathode Ray Experiment
  14. What did the Cathode Ray Experiment do?
    • Cathode rays were passed through a magnetic field.
    • Atoms attracted to pos. magnet
    • Ray are negative electrons
  15. Rays are negative what?
    Rays are negative electrons.
  16. Whose experiment...
    was the Cathode Ray Experiment?
  17. What were Thomson's contributions?
    • Subatomic particles
    • Discovered the Electron
  18. What is the "Plum Pudding" Model?
    A nickname for Thomson's model for atoms.
  19. "Bad"
  20. Who experiment...
    Studied uranium and found that it emitted 'rays' on photographic film?
  21. What was Becquerel's experiment?
    He studied uranium and found that it emitted 'rays' on photographic film.
  22. Which two scientists don't have a model?
    Becquerel and Chadwick
  23. What were Becquerel's contributions?
    The "rays" were actually radiation later named by Marie Curie
  24. Improved Thomson's theory.
  25. What was Millikan's experiment?
    The Oil Drop Experiment
  26. Whose experiment...
    was the Oil Drop Experiment?
  27. Whose contributions determined the charge of an electron?
  28. His contribution determined the charge of an electron.
  29. Improved Thomson's Model
  30. Whose experiment...
    was the Gold Foil Experiment?
  31. What happened during the Gold Foil experiment?
    • Shot positive alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold foil
    • Most particles went through, while a few deflected
  32. What was Rutherford's experiment?
    Gold Foil experiment
  33. Whose contributions said...
    1. Atoms are mostly empty space
    2. Atom have a small, dense, positively charged center (Nucleus)
  34. During the Gold Foil experiment, 9,999 alpha particles out of 10,000 went straight the gold foil. What can be concluded?
    Atoms are made of empty space
  35. During the Gold Foil experiment, 1 out of 10,000 alpha particles were dramatically deflected What can be concluded?
    Atoms had a dense, positively charged center (Nucleus).
  36. What did Rutherford's contribution say?
    • Atoms are mostly empty space
    • Atoms have a small, dense, positively charged center (Nucleus)
  37. Improved on Rutherford's atoms
  38. Whose experiment...
    1. Added energy to atoms
    2. Studied spectral lines
  39. What was Bohr's experiment?
    • He added energy to atoms
    • Studied spectral lines
  40. What was Bohr's contribution?
    Electrons are in fixed energy levels (called orbits) around nucelus
  41. What are orbits?
    The energy levels around the nucleus in which electrons are fixed in
  42. Electrons are fixed in energy levels, called orbits, around nucleus
    Bohr's contribution
  43. Who's model is the "Planetary" model
    Bohr's model
  44. Most curreny atomic model
  45. Whose experiment...
    has VERY complex models?
  46. What was Schrodinger's experiment?
    VERY complex models
  47. Whose contributions said that electrons are in orbitals (regions of probability)?
  48. What were Schrodinger's contributions?
    Electrons are in orbitals (Regions of probablity)
  49. What are orbitals?
    Regions of probablity
  50. Whose model is the Modern Atom (aka: wave-mechanical atom)
  51. What was Schrodinger's model?
    • Modern Atom
    • Aka wave-mechanical atom
  52. The Modern Atom is also know as...?
    Wave-mechanical atom
  53. Improved Rutherford's atoms
  54. Whose experiment...
    Discovered the neutron?
  55. What was Chadwick's experiment/contribution?
    He discovered the neutron
  56. List the scientists in order
    • Democritus
    • Dalton
    • Thomson
    • Becquerel
    • Rutherford
    • Bohr
    • Schrodinger
    • Chadwick
  57. Where are protons (p+) located?
    The nucleus
  58. What is the charge of a proton (p+)?
    • Positive
    • +1
  59. What is the mass of a proton (p+)?
  60. What is the symbol of a proton?
  61. Where are neutrons (n0) located?
    The nucleus
  62. What is the charged of a neutron (n0)?
    • Neutral
    • 0
  63. What is the mass of a neutron?
  64. What is the symbol of a neutron?
  65. Which subatomic particle has the smallest mass?
    • Electrons.
    • 0amu
  66. Where are electrons (e-) located?
    On orbitals
  67. What is the charge of an electronn (e-)?
    • Negative
    • -1
  68. What is the mass of an electron?
  69. What is the definition of Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)?
    1/12 the mass of a Carbon-12 atom
  70. What is Nuclear Charge?
    • Charge of the nucleus
    • Always positive = # of protons
  71. On a periodic table, the top number above the letter is the...
    Atomic number
  72. On a periodic table, the number below the letter is the...
    Avg. atomic mass
  73. On a periodic table, the letter in the middle is the...
    Symbol of the element
  74. What is avg. atomic mass?
    The avg of all naturally occuring isotopes
  75. What is mass number?
    Round the avg mass = # of protons + neutrons
  76. How do you find the avg mass?
    # of protons + # of neutrons
  77. How do you find the proton?
    Atomic number
  78. How do you find the neutrons?
    Atomic mass - atomic number
  79. How do you find the electrons?
    Atomic # - the charge
  80. Define finding a neutral electron
    neutral: # of protons + # of electrons
  81. Define finding a positive ion
    Positive ion: more protons. lost electrons
  82. Define finding a negative ion
    Negative ion: more electrons. gain electrons
  83. An element has a charge.
    True or false?
    False. An electron has no charge
  84. An ion has a negative charge.
    True or false?
    False. An ion has a charge
  85. The top number in a substance symbol is the what?
    The mass
  86. The bottom number in a substance symbol is the what?
    The atomic number
  87. Which particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
    Protons and neutrons
  88. What are the characteristics of a neutron?
    It has no charge and a mass of 1amu
  89. In which group do the particles contain only nucleons?
    Protons and neutrons
  90. What is the charge of a proton?
    It has a positive charge (+1) and 1amu
  91. Which subatomic particles hae a mass of approximately 1 atmoic mass unit?
    Protons and neutrons
  92. What are the nucleons in the atom?
    Protons and neutrons
  93. The major portion of an atom's mass consists of...
    protons and neutrons
  94. Which particle has approximately the same mass as a proton?
  95. As the numbeer of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom increases, the nuclear charge of the atom does what?
    Remains the same
  96. An electron has a charge of...
    -1 and a smaller mass than a proton
  97. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the number of its....
    protons, only
  98. All atoms of a given element must contain the same number of
  99. Which statement best describes electrons?
    They are negative particles found surrounding the nucleus
  100. What is the atomic number of an element that has 6 protons and 8 neutrons?
  101. What is the nucleus charge of an iron atom (Fe)
  102. The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom can be determined by...
    Subtracting the atomic number from the atomic mass
  103. What's the definition of an isotope?
    Atoms with the same atomic number (# of protons), but different atomic mass (# of neutrons)
  104. Where do nuclear reactons occur?
    In the nucleus
  105. What elements are radioactive?
    • Atomic #82 or higher is naturally radioactive
    • Less than 82 can be radioactive
  106. What does unstable nuclei mean?
    The number of neutrons is far greater than the # of protons
  107. What are some natural sources of radiation?
    Ground, sun, potassium
  108. What element is Pb?
  109. What element is U?
  110. What element is Ra?
  111. What element is Rn
  112. What element is Pu?
  113. Description of Alpha
    • Gold foil
    • Particle
    • Nucleus of helium
  114. Description of Beta
    • Particle
    • Like an electron
  115. Description of Gamma
    • Ray
    • Like an Xray
    • Really strong
  116. Description of a positron
    • Particle
    • Opp of electron
    • Antimatter
  117. Description of a proton
    • Particle
    • Nucleus of hydrogen
  118. What is the mass and charge of Alpha?
    • Mass: 4
    • Charge: +2
  119. What is the mass and charge of Beta
    • Mass: 0
    • Charge: -1
  120. What is the mass and charge of Gamma
    • Mass: 0
    • Charge: 0
  121. What is the mass and charge of a proton?
    • Mass: 1
    • Charge: 1
  122. What is the mass and charge of positron?
    • Mass: 0
    • Charge: +1
  123. What is the definition of radioactivity?
    The spontaneous emission of high energy particles
  124. What is the definition of natural transmutation?
    The nucleus of one element changes to another element's nucleus
  125. What are natural transmutations?
    When one element decays into another.
  126. How many reactants does a natural transmutation have?
  127. How many reactants does an artificial transmutation have?
    Two or more
  128. What are artificial transmutations?
    A high energy particle or ray "bombards" a nucleus to cause a decay
  129. What is the half-life of a radiactive isotope?
    The time required for one-half of the nuclei of a given sample of that isotope to decay
  130. The more half-lives, the more stable a radioactive isotope becomes.
    True or false?
  131. When you are given 2 time's, how do you solve a half-life?
    Divide first and then cut it in half
  132. When you a given 2 sets of amounts, how do you solve a half-life?
    Cut in half to the end and then divide
  133. What is the definition of fission?
    Splitting of a heavy nucleus of Uranium to make lighter nuclei
  134. What does the fission reaction occur?
    In nuclear reactors
  135. If a fission reaction if left uncontrolled, it also occurs where?
    In nuclear bombs
  136. What is fusion?
    Combining light nuclei to form heavy nuclei
  137. Where does the reaction Fusion naturally occur?
    The suuuun
  138. Fusion is the process of what?
    Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier one
  139. The energy released in a fusion reaction is much _____ (greater or smaller) than in fission?
    It's much greater
  140. Fusion is a safe method of producing energy.
    True or false?
  141. Fusion isotopes are clean, stable, and not radioactive.
    True or false?
  142. How comes it's not easy to convince two small Hydrogen atoms to merge together?
    Because the nuclei repel if they have like charges with another
  143. What are three useful ways to use radioactive isotopes?
    • Chemical reactivity
    • Radioactivity
    • Half-life
Card Set
Chemistry Chapter 3 Quiz
Chemistry Chapter 3 Quiz
Show Answers