CSD318K

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CSD318K
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2011-10-24 19:09:37
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  1. Development of Discourse Skills

    Preschool children begin to develop an increased awareness of _______________, such as physical appearance, gender, etc.
    social standards
  2. Development of Discourse Skills

    Preschool children begin to switch from context-dependent to ___________.
    decontextualized
  3. Conversational skills first start to develop at what age?
    3 months
  4. At what age are children able to take a few turns in conversation?
    3 years
  5. How many conversational turns can a child approximately take at 5 years of age?
    12
  6. At what age do children start using fillers?
    3 years
  7. In Stage 1 of narrative skills, adult provide _____________.
    scaffolding
  8. In Stage 2 of narrative skills, children are less dependent on support, but still dependent on _________________.
    • general knowledge
    • "Tell Uncle Mike about your birthday party." May talk about things that did not happen, but comes from general birthday party knowledge.
  9. In Stage 3 of narrative skills, children are less dependent on support and general knowledge and they begin to rely more on ________________.
    specific experience and knowledge
  10. In Stage 3 of narrative skills, there is an increase in ______, remoteness of events (__________) and structural complexity. This is usually between what ages?
    • length
    • decontextualization
    • 2-5 years
  11. Processing capacities, such as attention, memory and perceptual skills are _________ contributions to influences on the development of discourse skills.
    internal
  12. Birth order, parental style and cultural differences are _________ contributions to influences on the development of discourse skills.
    Environmental
  13. Older born children typically have better __________ where later born children have better ___________.
    • vocabulary and grammar
    • pragmatic skills
  14. Pragmatic skills predict later _________ skills and _____________.
    • literacy
    • academic performance
  15. Pragmatic skills are necessary for understanding and functioning in the ________.
    classroom
  16. Pragmatic skills give children what abilities in the classroom? (3)
    • Listening to instructions
    • Comprehension
    • Conversational repair - asking for clarification
  17. Pragmatic skills in school age children are also associated with __________.
    popularity
  18. Phonology is the study of the ______ and ________ of a language.
    • sounds
    • sound patterns
  19. Study of a language's sounds (phonology) includes the study of ________ and ________.
    • perception
    • production
  20. Study of a language's sound patterns includes _______ and __________.
    • phontactic knowledge
    • phonological rules
  21. Knowing that "kpakali" and "zloty" are not normal English phonemes is part of our __________.
    phonotactic knowledge


  22. This illustrates knowledge of ______.
    phonological rules
  23. Speech perception includes _______ and _________.
    • discrimination
    • identification
  24. Some examples of experimental paradigms in speech perception include _______ and __________.
    • High Amplitude Sucking (HAS)
    • the Head-Turn Paradigm (used for 5-12 mos.)
  25. Infants have many skills in prelingustic speech perception such as perceptual bias towards _______, discrimination of ___________, perceptual _________, discrimination of different ________ classes and they can track ________ patterns in one's native language.
    • speech sounds
    • native and nonnative sounds
    • constancy
    • rhythmic
    • phontactic
  26. The McGurk Effect is an example of what?
    Multimodal perception. Sensitivity to visual cues in addition to auditory cues. At 4 mos. infants prefer to look at the face that matches the sounds they hear.
  27. Infant-directed speech creates ______________ that helps infants to establish phonemic categories.
    greater discriminability of phonemes
  28. What is the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis?
    This states that exaggerated prosody and repetition helps infants isolate words in the speech stream and identify clause boundaries.
  29. Properties of infant-directed speech are ________ for language development.
    useful but not necessary
  30. Motherese exaggerates differences between ______.
    vowels
  31. At what age do babies start cooing?
    8 weeks
  32. At what age does laughter and vocal play begin?
    16 weeks
  33. At what age do babies begin reduplicated (canonical) babbling?
    36 weeks
  34. At what age do babies begin variegated babbling?
    48 weeks
  35. Among 12-month-olds acquiring American English, 11 consonants account for 90% of the consonant sounds. Most of these are _________.
    stops and glides
  36. What are the 11 consonants that account for 90% of consonant sounds in 12-month olds?
    h,w,j,p,b,m,t,d,n,k,g
  37. _________ are rare in speech sounds among 12-month-olds.
    Consonant clusters
  38. What vowels are more common among 12-month-olds?
    a, ǝ
  39. What are protowords and when do they begin to emerge?
    • Yum-yum=food
    • around 12 months
  40. What is babbling drift?
    It explains the specific language influence that begins to arise around 6 months. Lay people can usually hear the difference around 8 months. Linguists can tell at 6 months.
  41. Increase in lung capacity, lowered larynx and the expansion of the oral cavity are all __________.
    underlying physical growth processes of speech sound development
  42. Physical growth, nervous system maturation and experience are all ___________.
    underlying processes of speech sound development
  43. The onset of cooing and laughter and functioning of the limbic system as well as babbling and maturation of the motor cortex are all part of the __________ developments as an underlying process of speech sound development.
    nervous system maturation
  44. _______ is an underlying process of speech sound development that involves ________ and __________.
    • hearing adult language
    • hearing own vocal output
  45. Deaf babies begin babbling around the same time as hearing infants and sound the same until what age? At ehich point, what happens?
    At 10 months speech sounds either do not expand or even begin to narrow.
  46. First words use _______ of sounds.
    a small inventory
  47. Sounds common in babbling are also common in _______.
    early vocabularies
  48. Early word representations are holistic; words are not represented as consisting of _______.
    separate phonemes
  49. ____ studies are a way to measure phonological abilities.
    Normative
  50. Name 4 features of normative studies.
    • Criterion for mastery varies
    • Generally agree on the order of acquisition
    • Can be relied upon if you follow the same methods they use
    • Provide a sense of what normal is

  51. What kinds of sounds? Stops? Fricatives? At what age?
    Know general order of acquisition
  52. Phonological rpcesses are systematic ways to _____ of the target languages so that they fit within _______________.
    • alter the sounds
    • the repertoire of sounds the child can produce
  53. Phonological processes may affect the ____ or _____.
    • syllable
    • individual segments
  54. Name the 5 whole-word (syllable based) phonological processes.
    • Unstressed/weak syllable deletion
    • Final consonant deletion
    • Consonant cluster reduction
    • Reduplication
    • Epenthesis
  55. Name the 4 segment based phonological processes-substitutions.
    • Stopping
    • Fronting
    • Gliding
    • Deaffrication
  56. Assimilation is a type of _________.
    substitution
  57. The outcome of assimilation is determined by _________.
    a neighboring sound
  58. What are the two kinds of assimilation?
    Contiguous and non-contiguous
  59. Non-contiguous assimilation includes _______, _______ and ______.
    • progressive (doggie=doddie)
    • regressive (doggie=goggie)
    • consonant harmony (children use 1 place of articulation per word)
  60. banana > nana
    computer > puter
    Examples of what phonological processes?
    Unstressed/weak syllable deletion
  61. bus > buh
    dog > dah
    boot > boo
    Examples of what phonological processes?
    Final consonant deletion
  62. try > tie
    sleep > seep
    tent > tet
    small > mah
    Examples of what phonological processes?
    Consonant cluster reduction
  63. baby > beebee
    daddy > dada
    Examples of what phonological processes?
    Reduplication
  64. please > puh-lease
    Example of what phonological process?
    Epenthesis
  65. sing > ting
    thing > ting
    this > dit
    Examples of what phonological process?
    Stopping
  66. thumb > fum
    ship > sip
    Examples of what phonological process?
    Fronting
  67. laughing > yaffing
    story > stowy
    Examples of what phonological process?
    Gliding
  68. chip > tip
    watch > wash
    Examples of what phonological process?
    Deaffrication
  69. Assimilation should be suppressed by what age?
    2 years 6 months
  70. Syllable-based phonological processes should be suppressed by what age?
    2 years 4 months
  71. _______ phonological processes are suppressed later and are more sound specific.
    Segment based
  72. There is a dissociation between perception and production. ________ do not necessarily imply incomplete mental representations of the words.
    • Mispronunciations
    • - Fis phenomenon (pg. 61 of notes)
  73. Preschool years are characterized by ________ and ________ of phonological system.
    • rapid exapnsion
    • mastery
  74. Preschool years are characterized by the _________ of phonological processes.
    suppression
  75. Preschool years are characterized by increased phonological ________.
    awareness
  76. Increased phonological awareness comes around what age?
    4-5 years
  77. By what age should children have acquired all of the sounds in their language and have 90% accuracy?
    4 years
  78. How does phonological development influence lexical development?
    Words that fit a child's exisitng sound repertoire are learned more readily.
  79. Children with larger phonetic inventories correlate with ___________.
    larger vocabularies
  80. How does lexical development drive phonolgical development?
    Lexical development pushes children to analyze phonolgical components of words.
  81. Smaller vocabularies among children are associated with ________.
    What relationship is this related to?
    • holistic representations of words
    • lexical and phonological development
  82. Children develop their first words between _____ and _____ months.
    • 10
    • 15
  83. A child's first words have _____ meaning and are ______ of adult words.
    • consistent
    • approximation
  84. A child's first words may be ______ bound or ______ bound.
    • context
    • function
  85. Children hit the 50 word mark around what age?
    18 months
  86. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MBCDI) administered at 3 locations: US, Beijing and Hong Kong. All 3 groups were highly likely to produce _______ by the time they had 7-10 words.
    one or more people terms (mommy, daddy, brother, sister)
  87. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MBCDI) administered at 3 locations: US, Beijing and Hong Kong. The English group had more _________ than the Chinese groups and the Chinese groups had more ________ than the English group.
    • common object nouns
    • verbs
  88. Describe the natural partitions hypothesis.
    Objects are stable and cohesive where actions are transient.
  89. Describe the relational relativity hypothesis.
    Noun meanings are more similar cross-lingustically than verb meanings.
  90. Define underextension.
    Example?
    • Having a meaning that is too narrow.
    • Underextension of animal: Is this an animal?
    • Cow - yes
    • Dog - yes
    • Turtle - no
    • Lizard - no
  91. Underextension is _____ to detect in children.
    hard
  92. Define overextension.
    Example?
    • Having a meaning that is too broad.
    • Calling a cow, dog, horse and cat all dogs.
  93. Overextension is ________ to detect in children.
    easy
  94. Sometimes children overextend to _______.
    fill lexical gaps
  95. From ____ to ___ months children are learning their first 50 words. What happens after that?
    • 12
    • 18
    • Children shift into a higher learning gear (vocabulary spurt) when they start to learn more words per week.
  96. What could cause a word spurt?
    • Naming insight - kids realize everything has a name
    • Insight that words can refer to object categories
    • Nature of the phonological system
  97. There is a gap between word comprehension and word ________.
    production
  98. Children's word comprehension is _________ than their word production.
    more advanced
  99. There are proportionally more _______ in comprehension vocabulary than in production.
    verbs
  100. Around the vocabulary spurt age kids can start to make more errors on previously mastered words. What does this indicate?
    A trade-off
  101. What are two specific styles of language learners?
    Referential vs. Expressive
  102. The referential style of language learning reflects a high proportion of what kinds of words?
    Nouns and object labels
  103. The expressive style of language learning reflects a high proportion of what?
    Social terms and short phrases
  104. The referential style of language learning has highly analyzed forms and uses what kind of strategy?
    Bottom-up
  105. The expressive style of language learning has unanalyzed wholes or formulas/chunks (whasdat, lookadat) and uses what kind of strategy?
    Top-down

  106. The left is an example of what kind of learning style?
    Referential style

  107. The right is an example of what kind of learning style?
    Expressive style
  108. What are some environmental factors that affect individual differences in language learning?
    Input, SES, birth order
  109. What are some child factors that affect individual differences in language learning?
    • Joint attention skills
    • Personality
    • Word recognition speed
    • Phonological memory
    • Sex difference
  110. What are 4 methods babies use to correctly identify segments in speech?
    • Stress at the word level
    • Stress at the syllable level
    • Phonotactics
    • Paying attention to ends of utterances where important information is usually located
  111. Gavagai is related to what?
    The mapping problem: Referential indeterminancy (aka the Quinine Conundrum - Harvard 1960s)
  112. What is the mapping problem?
    An infinite number of hypotheses about word meaning are logically possible given the data a child has, but they usually figure out the correct meaning for words they hear.
  113. Children learn an average of ____ new words a day. Roughly _____ words by age 6.
    • 9
    • 10,000
  114. Fast mapping involves establishing a _______ relationship after just a few exposures.
    word-referent
  115. Fast mapping is necessary for _________.
    the subsequent stages of word learning
  116. What are two lexical constraints used to solve the word-referent mapping problem?
    • The whole object assumption
    • The mutual exclusivity assumption
  117. What is the whole object assumption?
    A lexical constraint used to solve the word-referent mapping problem claiming that children assume novel words refer to whole objects and not part of an object.
  118. What is the mutual exclusivity assumption?
    A lexical constraint used to solve the word-referent mapping problem claiming that children assume if two objects, for example, are presented and they know the name for one already, the novel name refers to the object.
  119. What are two pragmatic principles used to solve the word-referent mapping problem?
    • The principle of conventionality
    • The principle of contrast
  120. What is the principle of conventionality?
    It helps to attune word meanings to other people's word meanings - agreed upon by all members of a language community.
  121. What is the principle of contrast?
    It says that different words have different meanings. If one thing can be described by two words, children will figure out the differences between the two words.
  122. The principle of contrast is a close variant of what? Which comes first?
    The mutual exclusivity assumption. Mutual exclusivity comes first.
  123. How do children solve the word-referent mapping problem?
    • General attention and learning processes
    • Input as a source of support
    • Syntax (syntactic bootstrapping hypothesis)
  124. What is the syntactic bootstrapping hypothesis?
    The proposal that knowledge of language structure is generally useful for learning new verbs. ("The rabbit is gorping the duck!")
  125. What is the word extension problem?
    It refers to the ways in which kids figure out the range of exemplars to which a word refers.
  126. What is the taxonomic assumption?
    • Words label things that are of the same kind.
    • Given no word condition: "See this? Find another one." Shown a birthday cake, they will choose the present as the match.
    • Given a word condition: "See this? It's a dax. Find another dax." Shown a birthday cake, they will choose the pie as the match.
  127. As word learning mechanisms, lexical constraints and syntax are ____ specific and _______ to the child.
    • lexical
    • endogenous
  128. As word learning mechanisms, pragmatics and conceptual biases are ________ skills and ______ to the child.
    • general cognitive
    • endogenous
  129. As word learning mechanisms, attention and learning are _______ skills and are _______ to the child.
    • general cognitive
    • endogenous and exogenous
  130. As a word learning mechanism, input is ______ specific and _______ to the child.
    • lexical
    • exogenous

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