Bio Vocab

Card Set Information

Bio Vocab
2011-10-20 21:49:16
Science Bio

Biology vocab
Show Answers:

  1. Adenine
    A base that is found in DNA. It will only bond with thymine to create the 'rungs' on DNA
  2. allele
    one of a number of possible forms of a gene
  3. amino acids
    building blocks for proteins-there are 20 different types
  4. anther
    found in flowering plants, contain the male plant gametes
  5. asexual reproduction
    reproduction of identical offspring from a single parent
  6. autosomes
    any chromosome, ither than se chromosomes
  7. base
    one of four chemicals which make up the rungs of DNA (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)
  8. base pair
    to base that make up the rungs of DNA, either A-T or G-C
  9. cell
    the structual and functional unit of all living organisms
  10. cell division
    the formation of two or more daughter cells from one mother cells
  11. chromosomes
    thread like structure bearing genes that are found in the nucleus of a cell. Visible during prophase of cell division
  12. Characteristic
    A distinctive inherited feature of an organism
  13. cloning
    the process by which produces indentical genetic individuals
  14. cytosine
    A base that is found in DNA. It will only bond with guanine to create the 'rungs' on DNA
  15. DNA
    deoxyribose nucleic acid. a molecule found in the nucleus of cells which codes for an indiviuals genetic make up
  16. DNA replication
    a process where DNA creates a exact copy of its self
  17. dominant
    an allele that controls the phenotype regardless of the other allele
  18. double helix
    A term used to decribe the stucture of DNA. Twisting ladder
  19. enzymes
    Protiens that act as biological catalyst in living organisms. they control the rate of reactions.
  20. Fertilisation
    the fusion (joining) of the nucleus of male and female gamete to form a zygote
  21. gamete
    sex cell. A cell that must join with an other gamete to form a zygote of sexual reproduction
  22. gene
    length of DNA carrying the code of one feature
  23. genetics
    the study of how organisms inherit features from one generation to an other
  24. genetic code
    genetic info held in the DNA
  25. genotype
    the combo of two alleles that an organism has for a paricular gene
  26. Guanine
    A base that is found in DNA. It will only bond with cytosine to create the 'rungs' on DNA
  27. heterzygous
    having to different alleles for one gene; not true breading
  28. homozygous
    having to identical alleles for a gene: true breading when crossed with genetically identical organisms
  29. inheritance
    passing on of traits from one genertation to the next through the gentic code
  30. Karyotype
    Photograph of a indiviuals chromosomes, arranged in pairs showing there number size and shape
  31. Meiosis
    the type of cell division which produces four haploid genetically different gametes. I happens in the gonads
  32. mitosis
    a types of cell division which produces two identical daughter cells
  33. molecule
    two or more atoms chemically bonded eg CO2
  34. Mutation
    a random change in the gentic code of an indivual
  35. nucleotide
    A molecule containing a sugar-phosphate-base, found in DNA. nucleotides pair up to form DNA
  36. offspring
    New idiviuals produces by either sexual or asexual reproduction
  37. organism
    living thing. Able to do MRSCGREN
  38. ovaries
    female organ that produces female gametes-eggs. which are used in sexual reproduction
  39. pedigree chart
    a chart which show how genes are inherited
  40. proteins
    molecules that contain amino acids. they are found in all living organisms.
  41. pollen
    the male plant gamete
  42. punnett square
    a diagram used to predict the phenotype and genotype rations of offspring by showing how the alleles combine together during fertilisation
  43. purebreading
    organisms homozygous for a trait
  44. recessive
    a allele that willl only show when the doimant allele is absent
  45. selective breading
    a process that is used to bread for specific traits
  46. semi-conservative replication
    DNA replicated by unziping a DNA molecule then pairing up of nucleotides to produce two new DNA molecules each with half new half old strand sof DNA.
  47. sex chromosome
    a pair of chromosomes that determines the gender of the indiviual
  48. sexual reproduction
    reproduction involving the fusing of a female and male gamete. It produces varation in the offspring
  49. testes
    the male organ that produces sperm-male gamete. Sperm are used in sexual reproduction
  50. thymine
    A base that is found in DNA. It will only bond with adenine to create the 'rungs' on DNA
  51. trait
    a feature whose apperence is determined by genes
  52. triplet
    a sequence of three necleotides
  53. variation
    differnces between indiviuals
  54. zygote
    A fertilised egg. A single cell containing chromosomes of both male and female gametes at the time of fertilisation