Thoracic Cavity and Mediastinum

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Thoracic Cavity and Mediastinum
2011-10-20 22:52:10
Thoracic Cavity Mediastinum Med School

Thoracic Cavity/Mediastinum Anatomy
Show Answers:

  1. What are the articulations of the manubrium?
    Clavicle and first costal cartilage
  2. Describe the ribs and their names:
    • True Ribs: 1-7.
    • - Ribs 2-7 articulate in synovial joint
    • False ribs: 8-12
    • - Ribs 11, 12 are floating ribs
    • - Ribs 8-10 articulate in cartilages
  3. What are the limits of the thoracic inlet?
    • Manubrium
    • 1st rib pair
    • T1
  4. What are the limits of the thoracic oulet?
    • Xiphoid process
    • Costal arch of 7-10 and 12th rib
    • T12
  5. Describe the superficial layer of musculature in the thoracic wall:
    • External intercostal muscles
    • From the tubercles of ribs to the costochondral junctions
  6. Describe the middle layer of musculature in the thoracic wall:
    • Internal intercostal muscles
    • From the sternum and costal cartilages to the angles of the rib
  7. Describe the deep layer of musculature in the thoracic wall?
    • Transversus thoracic: From posterior surface of lower sternum to superior costal cartilages
    • Innermost intercostal: When they span two or more segments called subcostal muscles
  8. Where do the nerves/vessels of the thoracic wall run?
    Between the middle and deep layers of muscles
  9. What innervates the skin/muscles of the thoracic wall?
    • Ventral rami iof thoracic spinal nerves
    • T1-T11 = intercostal nerves
    • T12 = subcostal nerve
    • All muscles EXCEPT the diaphragm (phrenic)
  10. Where do the posterior intercostal arteries arise from?
    • First 2 are from the costocervical trunk of subclavian artery
    • Remainder are branches of thoracic aorta
  11. Where do the anterior intercostal arteries arise from?
    Internal thoracic artery or musculophrenic artery
  12. How is the superoinferior, anteroposterior and lateral diameter increased?
    • Superoinferior: Flattening diaphragm
    • Anteriopasterior: Elevating upper 6 ribs
    • Lateral: Elevating lower ribs
  13. Where does the division for the mediastinum occur?
    Horizontal plane from sternal angle to intervertebral discs between T4 and T5
  14. What is located within the superior mediastinum?
    • 1. Thymus
    • 2. Trachea
    • 3. Esophagus
    • 4. Thoracic Duct
    • 5. Phrenic Nerve
    • 6. Vagus Nerve
    • 7. Superior Vena Cava
    • 8. Arch of aorta
    • 9. Brachiocephalic vein
  15. What is located in the anterior mediastinum?
    • Internal thoracic vessels
    • Fat
  16. What does the middle mediastinum contain?
    Pericardium, heart, roots of great vessels
  17. What does the posterior mediastinum contain?
    • 1. Esophagus
    • 2. Thoracic Duct
    • 3. Vagus nerve
    • 4. Splanchnic nerve
    • 5. Azygous venous system
    • 6. Descending aorta
  18. Where do the esophagus, inferior vena cava and the descending aorta peirce through the diaphragm?
    • Inferior VC: T8
    • Esophagus: T10
    • Descending Aorta: T12
  19. What do the hemiazygous and accessory hemiazygous veins drain?
    • Hemiazygous: Lower 1/3 of thoracic wall
    • Accessory: Middle 1/3 of thoracic wall
  20. How does the thoracic duct enter the thoracic cavity?
    Aortic hiatus at T12