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What are the benifits and limitations of Cross Sectional Designs
- Benifit: Cheap, Quick, Easy
- Limiation: Exagerates results
What are the benifits and limitations of Longitudinal Research
- Limitations: Takes a loooooonnnggg time! and minimises the data
What are the benifits and limitations of Sequential Desings
Benifit: More realistic results, very efficiant and accurate in a smaller amount of time
What is the best way to measure development ?
(out of cross sectional - longitudinal - sequential)
What is wrong with coss sectional, longitudional and sequential research?
They are ALL correlational designs. We do not know the cause of why things are happening.
Erik Eriksons said people continue to change their whole lives and believes there are 8 different stages to live. What are the 8 stages and what ages do these happen at?
- 1. Basic Trust vs Mistrust
- birth to 1
- 2. Autonimy vs Shame & Doubt
- 1 to 3
- 3. Inittique vs Guilt
- 3 to 6
- 4. Industry vs Inferiority
- 6 to 11
- 5. Identity vs Diffusion
- 12 to 20ish
- 6. Intimacy vs Isolation
- Young adulthood
- 7. Generativity vs Stagnation
- 8. Ego Integrity vs Despair
- elderly years/ not having much time left
What effects cause people to change?
- Maturational Effects (biological)
- Cohort and Age Normative Effects
Why? Becuase they all add up over a life time
What are Maturational Effects
- Biological Effects
- things like puberty and physical development
What are Cohort and Age Normative Effects
- Cohort: A Special Subtype of age normative effects
- eg: a group of people, all around the same age experiencing a historical even together e.g Christchurch Earthquakes, 9/11
- Age Normative Effects: e.g beginning school at 5, finding a partner at 20 etc
What Are Idiosyncratic Effects?
- Unique and Individual things that change a persona to make you differnt
- e.g having many siblings.
- losing someone close to you
What is the age period of Neonates?
Newboarn to 6 weeks
What are Neonates sences like?
And how do they recognise their parents
- - are legally blind
- - very good hearing
recognise their parents by sound and feel
What can Neonates do and how do they spend their time?
Sleep 16-18 hours a day
- have very limited behavious made up of eniterly reflexes such as , sucking, graspings
- - they can habituate
- -can be classically conditioned
- -can be operantly conditioned
What is Miolen, and why is it necessary in development of newborns
New borns have very little miolen becuase of this they have lots of reflexs. If one thing is stimulated, something else will happen. The more miolen there is the less this will happen. It gets rid of the unwanted reflexs
What are the aspects of tempraments
- -Activity Levels
- - Rythmicity
- -Attention Span
What are Jean Piagets 4 Stages of Development at what ages
1. Sensorimotor - birth to 18 months
2. preopetational - 2 to 7 years
3. Concret operations - 7 - 11 years
4.. Formal Operations - beginning at 12 years
Who was Jean Piaget and what were his thoughts
a stage theorist.
what he said was wrong around the margins but as a whole correct
he tends to focus on more of what children can NOT do rather than what they can do
What is Assimilation and Accommodation?
Describe the differences
- Assimilation is when u try to change new things to fit into what u know
- eg.... like if u see a horse for the first time, u think ok well it has 4 legs like a dog, it runs like a dog, it has short hair like a dog, then maybe its just a big dog
Accommodation is when u change ur thoughts to accept new things in the environment
eg..... like when u see the horse for the first time, u think well this is a horse so from now on every time i see something thats large and with hoofs and a long tail i am going to think of it as a horse
In Jean Piagets Sensory Motor Stage what happens?
+ What age is this?
- age 0-2
- Child begins to interact with envorinment
If something is not infron tof them it no longer exists
Develop control over thier own body
Can recognise their self from others
In Jean Piagets Preoperational Stage what happens?
+ What age is this ?
age 2 - 6/7
- -Child begins to represent the world symbolically
- -develop language
- - Make believe and play
- -use transductive reasoning
- - animism (think their teddies love them, everything has feelings_
- Lack of Hierarchical reasoning
CAN NOT focuse on 1 thing at a time
cant put them selves in another persons shoes or look at things form another persons perspective
In Jean Piagets Concrete Operational Stage what happens?+ What age is this ?
ages 7 - 11
- -Can order things from big to small easily (seridate)
- - Understands objects can be in more than 1 category at nes
- - begins to think about objects rationally rather than in absoulte trms
In Jean Piagets Formal Operational Stage what happens?+ What age is this ?
- - Begins at 12 + years
- abstract thought, thinking about God, Art, Infinity
- -Hypothetical thoughts - may or may not happen
- - Counerfactual tought - how things would be if something didnt happen
- - Scientific Reasoning
Who was Lev Vygotsky and what were his views?
He views cognitive development was a social process
What is episodic memory?
Episodic memory is a category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences. Your first day of school, your first kiss, attending a friend's birthday party and your brother's graduation are all examples of episodic memories
What is Metacognition?
- An awareness of how one thinks
- - young children overestimate their thinking skills so dont work hard enough
What makes our communication differnt from Animal communication
- Ours is productive and grammatically structured
- symbolic and we use displacement e,g talk about distance
- Intentional. We can lie, animals can not.
To really know a language you need to know all four aspects, what are these? and little about each?
- 1. Phonology (Phonems)
- - changing a sounds changes a word. e.g rat cat bat. They are the sounds that make up languages
- 2. Semantics
- - vocabularly, morphems
- sounds hat have meaning e.g chair. Has past tense
- 3. Syntax
- -grammer, structure how words are ordered
- 4. Pragmatics
- social use of language
- -knowing how to react in situations. like the use of sarcasim
What are the stages of Language? and ages?
- birth to 1 yer
- Telegraphic Speech
- around 2 years
- Addition of Grammatical Morphemes
- 2.5 to around 5
What happens in Acquisition stage
- -babies react to language differently
- -only the left hemispgere responds to language
- - descriminate different phonems
- coo for 1 month (vowel sounds)
- babbling 3-4 months (short sylabols, consistant vowel sounds)
At 9 months babies start to only babble phonems from the language
What happens in Holophrastic Speech Stage
- Starts around 1 year
- takes 2 - 4 months to learn even 10 workds
- starts off very slow then the pace picks up
What happens in Telegraphic Speech
- starts around 2 years
- -unique grammer
- - produce novel sentences
- -speech contains 2-3 morphemes
- - content words not function words
What happens when there is an addition of gramatical morphemes?
- I sit becomes I Sitting to I am Sitting
- this is very predictable within any language
- predispositions (in,on)
- negative sentences and questions
What are the Three stages of developing a language? and what does this show for children?
- 1st stage is Pidgen language
- 2nd stage Creedle languate
- 3rd a language is created
Shows you dont need learning to create a language
What evidence supports natures sides of development
In born phonology
Attachment is very important you need at least _ good attachment in the first year of your life
What are the 4 Stages of Attachment Development + Ages
- 2. Indiscriminate Attachments
- 6 weeks - 6 monts
- 3. First Specific Attachement
- 7 Months
- 4 Multiple Attachment
- 7.5 months
What happens in the "Asocial" stage of attachment development
the babies dont care about people, including parents
What happens in the "Indiscriminate Attachment" stage of development
The babies figure out that people are good but still dont really care for any one inperticular
What happens in the "First specifit attachment" stage of development
Babie forms attachment to parents or caregiver. At this stage it is only one peron
What happens at the "Multiple Attachment" Stage of Development
Baby will now be attached to both parents and begin to form attachments to others around them
What was eriksons theory about attachment
That anxiety was caused from inconsistency or too early weaning
What are learning Theorists views on Attachment
- - Parents become secondary reinforcers
- -becuase good things happen when parents are around
What happens in the Ethological Approach?
- there is adaptive behavious, but htis does not happen untill the infant is mobile, becuase babies do not attach untill the can wander off.
- - they become attached after the learn to crawl
What happens in the cognitive development view of attachment?
- happens at around 7-8 months
- has to do with sufficent object permanance/memory
- the baby needs to be able to remember that their parents exist to be able to become attached to them
What are the characteristics of securely attached children? and what % of children got this from the experiment. What parenting style causes this?
They look to their parents for security. get up set when she leaves but can be calmed quickly. This is the best to be and around 70% get this from experiments.
The parenting style is warm and responsive, they are a very capible parent
What are the characteristics of resistant/ambivilant attached children? and what % of children got this from the experiment?
What kinda of parenting style goes with this?
They are very scared of being left. When mum does leave they get very pissed off, when she returns they get mad and hits mum.
Around 10 % of children showed this from the experiment
This comes from well meaning but inconsistent parents
What are the characterisitcs of avoident children? and what % of children got this from the experiment?
What kind of parenting style goes with this?
They go away from mum and come back when she leaves. As soon as she returns they run away again
Around 20% of children showed this from the experiment.
The parents are cold and rejecting, they dont really want the kid.
What are the other two new styles of attachment
Disorientated & Daycare