Chapter 4-6 Social Psy

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paco
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11086
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Chapter 4-6 Social Psy
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2010-03-18 08:04:26
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  1. The shifting standards phenomena occurs most readily when _____.

    a)objective scales are used for between-group comparisons

    b)objective scales are used for within-group comparisons

    c)subjective scales are used for between-group comparisons

    d)subjective scales are used for within-group comparisons


    either subjective or objective scales are used for either within-group or between-group comparisons
    d)subjective scales are used for within-group comparisons
  2. ____ refers to hiring based on group membership or to situations in which individuals perform trivial positive actions for out-group members, then use this as an excuse for not taking more meaningful positive actions at a different time.

    a)Prejudice

    b)Tokenism

    c)The glass ceiling

    d)Discrimination

    e)Modern racism
    b)Tokenism
  3. Different emotions underlie prejudice and may _____.

    a)allow covert discriminatory actions but not overt ones

    b)only be expressed in certain socially acceptable behaviors

    c)cause different physiological reactions to the presence of out-group members

    d)encourage different groups to work more closely together to cause harm to minority members

    e)give rise to different discriminatory actions
    e)give rise to different discriminatory actions
  4. Implicit associations are _____.

    a)relationships between members of two or more out-groups

    b)connections between members of the same in-group

    c)connections between members of the same out-group

    d)relationships between members of an in-group and those of an out-group

    e)links between group membership and evaluative responses
    e)links between group membership and evaluative responses
  5. _____ occurs when one stimulus is used to make related information more accessible in memory.

    a)Prejudice

    b)Stereotyping

    c)Priming

    d)Sublimation

    e)Tokenism
    c)Priming
  6. _____ can be automatically elicited by members of racial or ethnic groups and can influence behavior.

    a)Bona fide pipelines

    b)Implicit racial attitudes

    c)Collective guilt feelings

    d)Primed memories

    e)Social identities
    b)Implicit racial attitudes
  7. Collective guilt is most likely to occur when _____.

    a)the harmful actions are viewed as being in the service of a superordinate goal

    b)harmful actions are seen as illegitimate

    c)the out-group members are dehumanized to some extent

    d)harmful actions are denied or are seen as less severe

    e)the victims are seen as deserving of the harmful actions
    b)harmful actions are seen as illegitimate
  8. _____ are beliefs about the traits or characteristics that particular social groups are thought to share.

    a)Discriminations

    b)Stereotypes

    c)Schemata

    d)Prejudices

    e)Recategorizations
    b)Stereotypes
  9. _____ is the classical conditioning of attitudes by exposure to stimuli that are below an individual's threshold of awareness.

    a)Operant conditioning

    b)Instrumental conditioning

    c)Subliminal conditioning

    d)Social conditioning

    e)Awareness conditioning
    c)Subliminal conditioning
  10. The _____ is based on the observation that offering people small rewards for engaging in behaviors that are opposed to their true attitudes produces greater attitudinal changes than does offering them large rewards.

    a)the peripheral route to persuasion

    b)less-leads-to-more effect

    c)attitude ambivalence effect

    d)the central route to persuasion

    e)instrumental conditioning effect
    b)less-leads-to-more effect
  11. Persuasion can occur in either of two ways that differ in terms of _____.

    a)the amount of resistance people have

    b)the amount of cognitive processing involved

    c)the level of cognitive dissonance produced

    d)the level of fear evoked by the effort to persuade

    e)the degree to which people are forewarned of the effort to change their attitudes or behaviors
    b)the amount of cognitive processing involved
  12. suggests that our decisions to engage in particular behaviors is the result of a rational process.

    a)The theory of reasoned action

    b)The spreading of alternatives

    c)The attitude-to-behavior process model

    d)The elaboration likelihood model

    e)The systematic processing theory
    The theory of reasoned action
  13. _____ occurs when a group of individuals collectively misunderstands what attitudes others hold, and erroneously believes that others have different attitudes than those of the group.

    a) Attitude ambivalence

    b) Pluralistic ignorance

    c) Attitude accessibility

    d) Biased assimilation

    e)Social comparison
    b) Pluralistic ignorance
  14. The _____ allows us to protect ourselves from unwanted or unflattering views of ourselves.

    a) the identity function of attitudes

    b) self-esteem function of attitudes

    c) impression motivation function of attitudes

    d) ego-defensive function of attitudes

    e) the knowledge function of attitudes
    d) ego-defensive function of attitudes
  15. Our attitudes toward an object can become more positive because we have previously seen the object. This is known as _____.

    a) spreading of alternatives

    b) the identity function

    c) the persuasion function

    d) the knowledge function

    e) the mere exposure effect
    e) the mere exposure effect
  16. _____ is a basic form of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a reaction originally evoked by a different stimulus.

    a) Operant conditioning

    b) Social learning

    c) Classical conditioning

    d) Observational learning

    e) Instrumental conditioning
    c) Classical conditioning
  17. Stereotype threat causes decrements in performance, possible because ____________.
    A. Stereotype threat decreases performance motivation
    B. Stereotype threat increases rater bias
    C. Stereotype threat increases anxiety
    D. Stereotype threat enhances performance
    E. Stereotype threat decreases stress
    C. Stereotype threat increases anxiety
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The process of comparing our own performance to that of someone who is less capable is known as downward social comparison.
    a. True
    b. False
    a. True
  19. When Karen was recently asked to describe herself to her classmates, she spoke about being a student and a member of her class. She pointed out the similarities and differences between herself and her fellow students. Karen was primarily making ____________ comparisons.
    A. Instrumental group
    B. Intragroup
    C. Individual
    D. Intergroup
    E. Extragroup
    B. Intragroup
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. One basic form of learning that helps to form our attitudes occurs when a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to cause reactions that were originally caused by another stimulus. This type of learning is known as ________________.

    A. The Premack Principle
    B. Signal relations learning
    C. Classical conditioning
    D. Operant conditioning
    E. Observational learning
    C. Classical conditioning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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