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Name 3 ways diabetic ketoacidosis cause hyperkalemia?
- 1. A decrease of insulin, which normally pumps K+ from ECF into cells.
- 2. Polyuria due to osmotic effect of glucose in the urine leads to volume depletion & oliguria.
- 3. Oliguria decreases potassium excretion, which leads to hyperkalemia.
What are mechanisms of chronic alcoholism that cause predisposal to hypomagnesmia?
- 1. Poor dietary intake of Mg
- 2. Decreased Mg absorption from GI tract
- 3. Increased Mg excretion in urine due to (repeated) rising blood alcohol.
Chronic oliguria due to renal failure causes plasma excesses of which electrolytes?
- - Potassium
- - Magnesium
- *NOT calcium - vitamin D activation does not occur effectively, which leads to low plasma calcium.
What are the most common fluid/electrolyte imbalances seen wtih oliguric renal failure?
- - ECV excess
- - hyperkalemia
- - hypermagnesemia
- - hyperphosphalemia
- - hypocalcemia
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