Crafton Hills College resp 131 Brad's Exam 2 pt. 3
if the patient gently exhales the volume of gas inhaled it is called?
slow vital capacity
is the study of the interaction of drugs with the organism.
is a drug that stimulates a receptor. This is a drug with an efficacy. Causes an effect
is a drug that blocks a recptor. A drug with affinity, but no efficacy. Blocks an effect.
A drug that acts like epinephrine, kind of sympathomimetic agent. Can either stimulate or block the effects
An agent that blocks the neurotransmitter actylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. Inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses
Short-acting Beta 2 agonists indicated for relief of acute airflow obstruction
Long-acting drugs used for maintenance bronchodilation and relief of nocturnal symptoms
Causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure ( vasopressor effect)
Alpha selective drugs.
Causes increased heart rate and myocontractility ( increased chronotropic and inotropic effects
Beta 1 selective drugs
Relaxes Bronchial smooth muscle, stimulates muscocilliary activity, and has some inhibitopry action on infkammatory mediator release.
beta 2 selective drugs
The R-enatiomer of albuterol, a single isomer Beta 2 selective agonist. Binds with greater affinity to receptor sites, providing effective bronchodilation at lower doses than albuterol. Half the dose of albuterol
Venous blood does not reflect respiratory function because it has been exposed to ________, in hwich gas exchange with the tissues alters the O2 and CO2 concentrations of the blood.
Analysis of venous blood reflects?
Local metabolic rates and is of little value
ABG analysis is helpful in evaluating the effects of treatment and should also be obtained when?
significant changes in mechanical ventilation settings are initiated.
Clinicians should not solely rely on a ulse Oximetry reading when?
Abnormailites in PaCO2 or acid base are suspected.
Pulse ox will grossly overestimate the patient's oxygenation status when?
CO poisoning is present
Abnormailties such as low platelet counts or increased bleeding time may increase bleeding time. What should you do then while performing a puncture?
Hold it longer.
The Arterial blood can be obtained from which areas?
Radial, dorsalis pedis, brachial, or femoral ateries.
What test should be performed before the ABG?
How long should it take for the hand to turn back to regular color after the Allen's test?
Is affected by body temperature, arterial bood pH and other factors
is a function of the amount of O2 bound to Hb and dissolved in the plasma.
CaO2 cannot be normal without adequate ?
circulating blood cells containing Hb
Patients with polycythemia may have mild reductions in ____ and ____ while maintaing CaO2 values within normal.
A reduced CaO2 can also be present when?
Hb is bound to other gases
The single most important parameter that reflects the quantity of oxygen carried in the arterial blood is the?
Normal value of P(A-a)O2
10-15mmHg on room air
is a measurment of the pressure difference between the alveoli and the arterial blood of oxygen.
When the lungs become diseased what happens to the P(A-a)O2?
Iw ill become larger
How can you estimate P(A-a)O2 when a patient is on room air?
Multiply 0.4 by their age
Calc. of PAO2 requires known ____ and ____.
FiO2 and PaCO2
Can P(A-a)O2 be dtermined with patients on nasal cannula?
No, the FiO2 is too low.
Is strictly an indication of respiratory defects in oxygenation ability.
Hypoxemia is accompanied by an P(A-a)O2 that is?
What are the two situations where P(A-a)O2 would remain normal with hypoxemia?
Primary hypoventilation and high altitudes
Normal value of PVO2?
What does PVO2 stand for?
partial pressure of muxed venous blood
A true ,ixed venous sample can be achieved only by sampling the pulmonary artery blood through a?
Pulmonary artery catheter.
What percentage of arterial blood is given up at the tissue vascular beds?
Is a reflection of the relationship between O2 delivery to the tissues and the rate at which O2 is consumed.
PVO2 lower than 35 mmHg is strong evidence that tissue oxygenation is?
Suggests reduced cardiac output or severe hypoxemia in the patient with limited cardiac function. these values are lower than 35mmHg
Stands for C(a-V)O2
arteriovenous oxygen difference
Normal value for C(a-V)O2
C(a-V)O2 exceeding 6% cardiovascular decompensation is occuring and yissue oxygenation is?
A C(a-V)O2 lower than 3.5% may also occur when the tissue utilization of O2 is?
is a reflection of the quantity os CO bound to the Hb molecules and can be obtained only from the co=oximeter
is a reflection of the respiratory component of acid base status.
Occurs when the portion of the Vt that does not come into contact with blood flow is increased.
Dead Space Ventilation
The best perameter for evaluating the adequacy of ventilation is
Is primarily a reflection of the metabolic component of acid-base balance and is regulated by the renal System.
The HCO3 may be a compensatory response to changes in PaCO2, this requires how much time?
is a measurement reflecting the nonrespiratory portion of acid-base balance. It is standard deviation of the standard HCO3
BE or Base Excess
Metabolic disorders are noted by plasma in _____ and respiratory disorders alter.
The three phases of the FVC maneuver.
Max. inspiratory effort, initial expiratory effort, and forceful emptying of the lungs.
Both restrictive and obstructive diseases can drecrease ____.
this test is performed by having a patient completely inhale, then exhale slowly and maximally.
If the FVC is lower than the SVC then?
air trapping is occuring.
A VC that is less than ____ indicates a risk for post operative respiratory complications
A VC less than _____ indicates that the patient's ventilatory reserve is decreased enough to cause rep. failure.