Brad\'s Exam 2 pt. 4.txt
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Brad\'s Exam 2 pt. 4.txt
Crafton Hills College resp 131 Brad Exam pt
Crafton Hills College resp 131 Brad's Exam 2 pt.4
this is the sum of SVC and RV.
Total Lung Capacity
What is the normal predicted TLC.
TLC is obtained by one opf four ways. What are the four ways?
Body Plethysmography ( body box), Open circuit nitrogen wash out, closed circuit helium dilution, or x-ray planimetry
TLC test that measures all the gases in the chest
What are the two volumes of gas that are concidered in the body box
gas in the box and gas in the lungs
These are the flows that are routinely identified.
FEV1, FEV3, FEF25%-75%, PEF
Measures the maximal volume of air exhaled during the first second of expiration.
Normal FEV1 is what percentage of FVC?
this is the 3-second point of the expiratory curve. itr is not reproducible as the FEV1.
what is the normal FEV3 of FVC?
This measures the middle half of the expiratory curve.
normal range or FEF25%-75%
is the maximum flow rate achieved by the patient during the FVC maneuver.
Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF)
a simple and convient test of expiratpry flow rate used to evaluate severity of bronchospasm and responce to treatment.
This measurement requires the patioent to breathe as rapidly and deeply as possible for 12-15 secs.
Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV)
This reflects the status of the respiratory muscles, compliance of the thorax-lung complex, and airway resistance, amd normal values widley and vary.
are presented with volume plotted on the horizontal axis and flow on the vertical.
Flow Volume Loops.
Amount of increase from a bronchodialtor in FVC
Amount of increase from bronchodialtor in FVC1?
Increase of 200mL or 15% over baseline
Amount of increase from bronchodialtor in FEF25%-75%?
The ability of gas to diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane can be measured and is know as?
Diffusion Capacity DL
Alveolar-capillary membrane diseases such as emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, or pulmonary embolus does what to the DL?
Diseases that increase Hb such as hemosiderosis will do what to DL?
The most common causes of reduced DLCO is?
emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis
Normally Raw is greater on ____ than _____. (breathing)
this is defined as volume change per unit of pressure change. Measures tthe relative stiffness of the lungs
The ratio of CO2 produced to oxygen consumed is called
One of the most frquent uses for RQ is?
to figure out wich food are being used for energy
if the RQ is 0.7 what is the energy source?
if the RQ is 1.0 what is the energy source?
Normal RQ is
Exercise test: used for the nininvasive detection of coronary artery disease.
Exercise Test: assesses the patients ability to respond to exercise with the appropriate increase in rate and depth opf ventilation.
Detects the Oxygenation, ventilation, and oxygen usage problems.
Exercise Test: when the body is stressed with exercise, there is a point at which oxygen need exceeds availability.
Exercise test: designed to identify the level of exercise that causes the patient to reach maximum oxygen consumption
Maximal oxygen uptake
These are techniques used to document bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Can be done with a histamine or methacholine
is essential in patients with a history of lung disease, espicially if the surgery involves thoracic or upper abdominal surgery.
preoperative pulmonary function screening.
What are the two pulmonary abnormalities
obstructive and restrictive
is present when the expiratory flow is below normal
is present if the lung volume is below normal.
What classes of drugs can be aerosolized?
Bronchodilators and Corticosteroids
What is combivent?
albuterol and atrovent
Diseases that would benefit from Bronchodialators
any disease that is restrictive
These are electromagnetic waves yhat radiate from a tube through which an electic current has been passed.
The eclectrons are focused to hit a small area on the anode, called?
this is generated by placing a sheet of film next to the patient's thorax opposite the xray tube.
X-rays that pass through low-density tissue strike the film in great numbers and turn it black.
X-rays that strike bone are parcially absorbedm therefore fewer x-rays strike the film and there is less darkening of the corresponding area on the x-rays seen as white.
These are the four densities recognized on the x-ray:
water, fat, bone, and air
Standard CXR are taken two ways:
Standing back tot tube and laying down.
When the xray leaves source, strikes the patients posterior chest, moves through the chest, exits the front onto the film. What kind of view is this?
this xray view is when the patient is laying on their side to see whethere free fluid is present.
Lateral decubitus view
Projections made at apporoximately 45 degree tube angulation from below.
these views are helpful in delineating a pulmonary or mediastinal lesion from structures that overlie it on the PA and leteral views.
CXR taken when the patient exhalate fully.