Endocrine, Sexual & Reproductive, and Renal Dysfunction

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Endocrine, Sexual & Reproductive, and Renal Dysfunction
2011-10-21 14:42:31
Endocrine Sexual Reproductive Renal Pathophysiology

Study cards on the endocrine, sexual & reproductive and renal dysfunctions for Pathophysiology
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  1. What is meant by a negative feedback control mechanism?
    • Basically if the body is low on something, it reacts on the organs to stimulate to make that hormone or what ever.
    • Feedback systems are provide precise monitoring and control of the cellular environment. The most common feedback system, negative feedback, occurs because the rising hormone level negates the initiating change that triggered the release of the hormone.
  2. What is the difference between primary and secondary endocrine disorders? List examples of each.
    • Primary Disorders
    • Malfunction of the hormone gland itself
    • hypothyroidism occurs because not enough T3 and T4 are being secreted from the thyroid gland, even though there is adequate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary
    • pancreatic beta cells stop producing insulin
    • Secondary
    • Malfunction of tropic hormone producing gland so the hormone-producing gland produces less or more hormone
    • hypothyroidism secondary to insufficient thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from anterior pituitary
    • growth hormone deficiency secondary to insufficient growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) from the anterior pituitary
  3. What is the causes, pathophysiology, and manifestations of giagantism?
    • Acromegaly - excessive growth hormone in adults in 40s and 50s, slowly progressive
    • Giantism - excessive growth hormone in children/adolescents because epiphyseal growth plates have not closed
    • Etiology
    • growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma
    • Pahophysiology
    • uncontrolled production growth hormone
    • Manifestations
    • Adults: enlarged tongues, interstitial edema, enlarged and overactive sebaceous and sweat glands (leading to increased body odor) and coarse skin and body hair. Bony proliferation involves periosteal vertebral growth and enlargement of the bones of the face, hands, and feet. Lower jaw and forehead also protrude. Hypertension, Left Heart Failure, headache, seizure activity, visual disturbances, papilledema, compression hypopituitarism
    • Children:
    • Associated with shortened lifespan (CV dysfunction)
    • Tall stature due to growth of long bones; height > 80 inches by adulthood or > 3 standard deviations above mean for age