Bio-chap 9

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Author:
Needtostudy
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110943
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Bio-chap 9
Updated:
2011-10-26 14:18:06
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Body
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Overveiw of the body's defence mechanisms
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  1. Overveiw of the bodys defence mechanism
    Defense mechanisms include:
    Bariers to the eneryote pathogens (disease-producing microorganisms)
  2. Overveiw of the bodys defence mechanism
    Defense mechanisms include:
    Skin, stomach, acid, tears, vomiting
  3. Overveiw of the bodys defence mechanism
    Defense mechanisms include:

    -NONSPECIFIED DEFENCE MECHANISIMS-
    Phagocytosis, inflamation
  4. Overveiw of the bodys defence mechanism
    Defense mechanisms include:

    SPECIFIED DEFENCE MECHANISM:
    • imune responses
    • Antibodies
    • T Cells
  5. Pathogens Causes Disease
    Disease-causing agents include:Living organisms
    • Bacteria: unicellular prokaryotes
    • Fungi: Unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes
    • Parasites: unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes
  6. Pathogens Causes Disease
    Disease-causing agents include: NON-living Infectious "particles
    • Viruses
    • Prions
  7. bacterial cell. bacteria have a single strand of DNA and free-floating small ribosomes within their cytoplas. Their plasma membrane is surrounded by a rigid cell wall.
  8. Viruses. Viruses consist of aprotein coat surrounding either RNA or DNA
  9. Bacteria: Single-celled Living Organisms
    Characteristics:
    • Prokaryotic
    • Single celled
    • uses a vierety of resources for growth and reproduction
  10. Bacteria: Single-celled Living Organisms
    Infection:
    Pneumonia,tonsilltis, turbuculosis, botulisms, toxic, shock syndrom, syphillis, Lyme disease, etc
  11. Bacteria: Single-celled Living Organisms
    Infection: TRATMENT
    generally treated with antibiotics
  12. Viruses: TINY INFECTIOUS AGENTS
    • Etremly small, much smaller that bacteria
    • Living? open to debate
    • Unable to reproduce outside a host cell
    • No metablic activity
  13. Viruses: TINY INFECTIOUS AGENTS :STRUCTURE
    • NUCLIEIC ACID IS SURROUNDED, NOT BOTH
    • NUCLIEC ACID IS SURROUNDED BY A PROTEIN COAT
  14. Viruses: TINY INFECTIOUS AGENTS:DISEASES
    AIDS, HEPITITIS, ENCEPHALITIS, RABIES,INFLUENZA, COLDS, WARTS, CHICKEN POX
  15. KEEPING PATHOGENS OUT: THE FIRTS LINE OF DEFENCE-
    • SKIN-and effective detterrent
    • TEARS AND SALIA -contain lysozme (antibacterial enzyme)
    • EAR WAX- entraps microorganisms
    • MUCUS - entraps microorganisms
    • STOMACH -highly nacidic, inhibits some microorganisms
    • VAGINA-slightly acidic, inhibits some microorganisms
    • VOMITING,URINATION, AND DEFECATION-remove microorganism
    • RESIDENT BACTERIA- outcomplete pathogens
  16. Nonspecific Defenses: Phagocyes Engulf Forign Cells
    PHAGOCYTIC CELLS:
    • white blood cells that surround and engulf invading bacteria
    • neutrophillis, macrophages, eosinophils
  17. Nonspecific Defenses: Phagocyes Engulf Forign Cells
    INFLAMATION:
    REDNESS, WARMTH, SWELLING, PAIN
  18. Nonspecific Defenses: Phagocyes Engulf Forign Cells
    nATURAL kILLER cELLS
    a type of lymphocyte that attacks tumor cells and viruses-infected cells
  19. Nonspecific Defenses: Phagocyes Engulf Forign Cells
    Comlement proteins:
    • Lyse invading bacteria
    • FEVER RESPONSE
  20. Specific Defense Mechanisms:
    B CELLS : antibody-mediated immunity
    • Bcell activated when they recognize an ANTIGEN
    • Divide into two cells types
    • Memory Cell store information for future immune response
    • Plasma cells- actively secrete antibodies which will bind to antigen
  21. Specific Defense Mechanisms:


    THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE (THE IMMUNE RESPONSE) :CHARACTERISTICS-
    • Recognizes and targets specific pathogens and foreign substances
    • has "memory"- "remembers" inital exposure and respons more quickly and aggressively on subsequent exposures
  22. Specific Defense Mechanisms:


    THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE (THE IMMUNE RESPONSE) : ABility to distinguis between-
    • self cells and foreign invaders
    • healthy cells and abnormal (tumor) cells
  23. Specific Defense Mechanisms:

    Lymphocytes are central to specific defences
    B_LYMPHOCYTES:
    • ANTIBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY
    • ANTIBODIES: PROTEINS MADE BY b LYMPHOCYES THAT BIND WITH NEUTRALIZE SPECIFIC ANTIGENS
    • -ACTIVATE AGAINST VIRUSES, BACTERIA, AND SOLUBLE FOREIGN MOLECULES
  24. Specific Defense Mechanisms:

    Lymphocytes are central to specific defences
    t lymphocytes
    • cell-mediated immunity
    • Directly attack foreign cells
    • coordinate immune response
    • activate against parasites, viruses, fungi,intracellular bacteria, cancer cells, cells with "NONSELF' MHC
  25. T -Cells: Cells mediated immunity
    T-cells
    • originate from stem cells in the bone marrow
    • mature in the tymus
    • Types of t- cells are
    • HELPER T cells and memory T cells
    • CYTOXIC T cells and memory T cells
  26. T- cells: Cell- mediated immunity

    Helper t cells
    • secrete cytokines which stimulate other immune system cells
    • plan a key role in directing the immune response
    • are targetof HIV infection
    • =stimulate b-cells
    • =dont associate directly antigen only in MHC complex
  27. T- cells: Cell- mediated immunity
    Cytotoxic T cells:
    • directly attack and destroy abnormal (tumor or viral-infected) cells and foreign cells
    • +cancerous or infected viruses recognizable non-normal MHC cell than attck
  28. T- cells: Cell- mediated immunity
    Memory T cell:
    reactivate during later exposures
  29. B cell take antigens in and break peices then moves out to the MHC complex on outside of cell helper t cell comes bined and activate cytotoxic t cells that activate b cells
  30. Immune memory creates immunity
    Primary Immune resonse
    • occurs on first exposure to antigen
    • Characteristics:
    • lag time of 3-6 days for antibodies production
    • (immune response)peak at 10-12 days
  31. Immune memory creates immunity
    Seconday immune response
    • occurs on second and subsequent exposure to antigen
    • characteristics:
    • Lag time in hours
    • peak in days
  32. Medical assistant against in the war against Pathogens: IMMUNIZATION
    • a stragedy for causing the body to develop immunity to a specific pathogen
  33. Medical assistant against in the war against Pathogens: IMMUNIZATION
    ACTIVATE IMMUNIZTION
    • intentionally expose individual to a form of the antigen that doesnt produse disease
    • also known as
  34. Medical assistant against in the war against Pathogens: IMMUNIZATION
    Passive immunization
    administer protective antibodies to an individual
  35. Medical assistant in the war against pathogens: Antibotic combat Bacteria
    • antibiotics kill bacteria or inhibit their growth
    • antibiotics are selectivly
    • antibiotics not effective against viruses
  36. Innapropriate Immune System Actively causes problems:
    Autommune Disorders
    • Inability of immune system to distinguish self from "nonself"
    • Antibodies and cytotoxic T cells target the bodies own tissue
  37. Innapropriate Immune System Actively causes problems:
    Autommune Disorders
    EXAMPLES
    • Lupus erthematosis (LE or lupus)
    • inflammed connective tissue
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • inflamed synovial membrane
  38. Immune Deficency: The Special Case of AIDS
    • AIDS: aquired immune deficiency syndrom
    • caused by infection with hiv ( human immunodeficency Viruse)
    • hiv target helper t cells
    • hiv attaches to cd4 receptors to th T helper cell and gains entry to the cell
    • Transmission via body fluids ( blood, semen, breast milk, vaginal secretions)
  39. AIDS developes Slowly : Phase 1
    • may last a few weeks to a few years
    • brief period of flu-like symptoms:
    • swollen lymph nodes
    • chills
    • fever
    • fatigue
    • body aches
    • most people dont exhibit recognizable symptoms
    • viruses is multiplying antibodies are made but are ineffective for complete viral remeoval
  40. AIDS developes Slowly : PHASE 11
    • occurs within 6 mo to 10 yrs
    • opportunistic infections present from inital exposure
    • helper t cells affected numbers are decreasing
    • if untreated 95% will pogress to next phase (AIDS)
  41. AIDS developes Slowly : PHASE 111
    clinacla aids
    • helper t cells fall below 200 cells/mm
    • oppertunistic infections and cancers present such as
    • tb
    • pnemonia
    • meningitis
    • encephalitis
    • Kaposi's sarcoma
    • non hodgkins lymphoma
    • if untreated ,nearly always fatal
  42. RISKY BEHAVIORS INCREASES YOUR CHANCES OF GETTING AIDS
    • males 3/4 of new cases
    • sex w/ other men
    • sharing needles during intravenous drug use
    • heterosexual sex with HIV- Infected female
    • Females 1/4 of new cases
    • sex w/ hiv infected male
    • sharing needels w/drugs

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