vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-2-part-2

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darlene.m.nelson
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110979
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vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-2-part-2
Updated:
2011-10-21 20:37:31
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vet tech animal diseases chapter pansystemic part Rickettsial end set
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vet tech animal diseases chapter 1 pansystemic diseases 2 part 2 Rickettsial diseases (to end) set
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  1. Rickettsial diseases
    • infectious, but not contagious
    • caused by Rickettsia bacteria
    • typically relying on vectors for transmission - ticks of various kinds depending on the disease
    • can all look alike symptom-wise, but all are treated the same
    • - can test for individual diseases, but 11 tick borne diseases lab work costs approx $175 to vet, $350 to client
    • - 4DX test catches Lyme, Ehrlichia, Anaplasmosis
    • cats don't usually get Rickettsial diseases
  2. Rickettsia
    an order of gram negative bacteria occuring as elementary bodies that typically multiply only in the cytoplasm of host cells
  3. Specific Rickettsial diseases
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Ehrlichiosis
    • Borreliosis - Lymes
    • Anaplasmosis
  4. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Etiology - Rickettsia rickettsii
    • Vector - Dermacentor variabilis (wood tick), also Brown Dog tick
    • misnomer - primarily Ohio River Valley
    • attacks vascular endothelial cells
    • tick proboscis goes into capillary and spits anticoagulant and disease which attacks endothelium
    • tends to be seasonal
    • humans can contract this via ticks
  5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Clinical signs
    • fever - approx 104-105
    • anorexia - loss of appetite
    • depression
    • mucopurulent ocular discharge
    • cough
    • panting (tachypnea)
    • vomiting/diarrhea
    • hypersensitive to touch
    • very uncomfortable
    • muscle pain
    • CNS signs
    • severe weight loss
    • retinal hemorrhages
    • scrotal edema
    • acute renal failure
    • symptoms dependent on vessels most affected
    • - every organ has endothelial cells
    • eventually will cause vasculitis
  6. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever diagnosis
    • history
    • - tick exposure
    • season
    • - spring and summer
    • symptoms
    • - rule out other tick borne diseases
    • serology
    • - screen for antibodies
    • lab tests
    • - anemia - because of leaking blood vessels
    • - thrombocytopenia - getting used up repairing constantly damaged blood vessels
    • - hypoproteinemia - protein leaks out of damaged blood vessels with blood
  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever treatment
    • Doxyclycline
    • - one of the few antibiotics that crosses cell membrane and gets into cytoplasm
    • - no dairy products or calcium rich foods with this; calcium interferes with absorption of drug
    • - also:
    • -- Tetracycline (oldest, 4x daily)
    • -- Minacycline (1x day, newest, most expensive)
    • -- Oxycycline, Doxycycline (reasonable cost, dosage schedule)
    • -- Amoxicillin (also enters cytoplasm, but not as well)
    • - slows rate of bacteria multiplication so that immune system can keep up with it
    • supportive care
    • length of treatment will vary dependent on vet's experience with the disease (no concensus)
  8. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Prevention
    • tick control
    • - treatment does not remove all organisms
    • no vaccine
  9. Ehrlichiosis
    • Etiology:
    • - Ehrlichia canis
    • - Ehrlichia ewingii
    • - Ehrlichia equi (now Ehrlichia anaplasmosis)
  10. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis
    • monocytes turn into macrophages; ehrlicia kills the cells that would destroy it
    • Etiology:
    • - Ehrlichia canis
    • Vector - Rhipicephalous sanguineus (brown dog tick)
    • disease has 3 distinct phases:
    • - acute
    • - subclinical
    • - chronic
  11. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis Acute phase
    • in New England, usually catch it at this phase
    • monocyte invasion
    • 2-4 week duration
    • clinical signs:
    • - lymphadenopathy
    • - fever
    • - weight loss
    • - edema
    • - nasal and ocular discharge
  12. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis Subclinical phase
    • see this in dogs transported from the south
    • few symptoms
    • CNS signs - eg foot dragging, problems jumping
  13. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis Chronic phase
    • owners see this as eyes loooking funny
    • retinal hemorrhage
    • extreme weight loss
    • anterior uveitis - sparkle in penlight
    • CNS signs
    • bleeding tendencies
    • secondary bacterial infections
  14. Canine Monocytic Ehrliciosis diagnosis
    • history
    • - ticks
    • physical exam
    • - fever
    • - symptoms
    • serology
    • - immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) - same kind of test for FeLV
  15. Canine Monocytic Ehrliciosis treatment
    • supportive care
    • - fluids
    • - transfusions
    • Doxycycline
  16. Canine Monocytic Ehrliciosis prevention
    tick control
  17. Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis
    • granulocytes - neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
    • 2 forms with 2 different etiologies
    • first form:
    • - etiology - Ehrlichia ewingii
    • - vector - Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick) - don't see a lot in New England
    • - acute polyarthritis
    • - inflammatory joint disease - endothelium of synovial joints
    • second form:
    • - etiology - Ehrlichia eui
    • - vector - Ixodes damini (now scapularis) - same as for Lyme
    • - severe lethargy and anorexia
    • both cross reactive with ehrlichia canis
  18. Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis diagnosis
    • positive for Ehrlichia canis
    • abnormalities in granulocytes
  19. Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis treatment
    Doxycycline
  20. Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis prevention
    tick control
  21. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease)
    • etiology:
    • - Borrelia burgdorferi
    • - spirochete
    • - not rickettsial, but similar symptoms; vector borne disease
    • - changes surface proteins depending on environment (eg tick vs dog)
    • vector:
    • - Ixodes sp.
    • - can use almost anything alive as host for any stage in life cycle; makes it hard to eradicate
    • - must attach for a minimum of 48 hours
    • disease of the Northeastern United States; unusual in the rest of the US
    • endemic in Eastern Mass
    • - widespread in wildlife with occassional flare up in dogs/humans
  22. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease) clinical signs
    • - extremely variable
    • - dermatologic - bullseye rash - rarely seen in animals because of fur
    • - arthritic
    • - cardiac
    • - neurologic
    • - nephritic - labrador retrievers - immune reaction, not the disease itself
    • tends to like cells of cartilage (encased in clear substance)
  23. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease) acute stage
    • fever
    • lethargy
    • hyperesthesia
    • polyarthritis
    • dermatitis
    • 80% of infections are asymptomatic
  24. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease) chronic stage
    • episodic lameness
    • myocardial abnormalities
    • CNS signs
    • acute renal failure
  25. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease) diagnosis
    • history
    • serologic testing - 3 tiered approach:
    • - ELISA - antibody screening test (quantitative analysis)
    • - C6 qualitative analysis - > 30 and symptomatic means you should treat (variable by vet for other #)
    • - Cornell test - new chronic va acute
  26. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease) treatment
    • symptomatic
    • - positive snap
    • - C6
    • asymptomatic
    • - positive snap
    • - +/- C6 - depends on who you work for; even different vets in same practice
    • doxycycline or amoxicillin
    • - 2-12 weeks
    • tends to recur
    • likes chondrocytes (connective tissue cell - tissue that covers long bone)
    • - very difficult to get antibiotics in there
  27. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease) - Lymes nephritis
    • population of dogs that go into acute renal failure
    • - dog is fine in AM
    • - by PM won't eat, vomiting
    • - take to vet
    • - kidneys have failed, very high Lymes C6 (500-700 and up)
    • - antibody/antigen complex
    • -- when small, go through kidney and leave in urine
    • -- when large, go to liver, get metabolized (broken down), go through kidney and leave in urine
    • -- when intermediate (like Lymes), clog up glomeruli in kidney and eventually it fails
    • - dog will die
    • - happens in retrievers a lot
    • - certain genotype (approx 30%) in humans have reactions
  28. Borreliosis (Lymes Disease) prevention
    • tick control
    • vaccination
    • - OspA
    • -- external proteins are form that are in tick gut
    • -- older vax
    • -- efficacy approx 70%
    • - Osp C
    • -- external proteins are form that are in dog
    • -- efficacy 85%
  29. Anaplasmosis
    • etiology - Anaplasma phagocytophilium (means phagocyte loving)
    • was called - Ehrlichia equi
    • granulocytic affinity
    • see Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis

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