All matter is composed of atoms that contain (+) and (-) charged particles called what?
What are electrons?
particles of matter possessing a (-) charge and very small mass
What is the rate at which the charge moves past a given point?
Electrons move from areas of high potential energy to where?
ares of low potential energy
Ampere (amps) measure what?
What is intensity measured in?
What is the range of mamp for imperceptible?
What is the range of mamp for tingling, muscle contraction?
What is the range of mamp for painful electric shock?
What is the range of mamp for cardiac fibrillation/respiratory arrest?
What is the range of mamp for rapid burning, destruction of tissue?
What produces the flow of electrons and is measured in voltz?
electromotive force (EMF)
Electromotive force is referred to as what?
potential energy sitting there
What is voltage?
strength of current (pressure)
amount of current through the wire=pressure
What is considered low voltage?
What is considered high voltage?
What are materials that offer little oppostion to current flow?
Conductors are good at what?
passing on electricity
Metal&water, blood&muscle, and the nerve system are examples of what?
What is material that resists current flow?
rubber, wood, plastic, skin, bone, and tendons are examples of what?
What is resistance?
opposition to electrom flow
measured in OHMS
What is OHMS law?
current flow = voltage/resistance
rate of flow = electromotive force/opposition to current
What are watts?
voltz X amperes
measure of electrical power
What are two types of electrical current?
D.C. (direct current)
A.C. (alternating current)
What are some other words for direct current?
galvanic, monophasic, uni directional
What are some other words for alternating current?
faradic, biphasic, 2 directions
What are 3 types of DC/AC current?
continuous, interrupted/modulated, surge
What is an alteration in current flow (shape, direction, amplitude, duration)?
What is amplitude?
reflects intensity of current (by height)
What reflects the rate of current?
What happens to tissues if amplitude or frequency increases?
increased excitability of tissues
What is a circuit?
path of current from power source through components back to source
What circuit has the power drawn off at each link? All devices are either on or off.
What circuit has each appliance directly connected to the + or - charge and the appliance completes the circuit?
What is advantage?
you can disconnect on appliance without interrupting the flow to others and each appliance gets the full voltage
What circuit decreases by each appliance that draws on it?
What are 4 ways to alter OHM's law?
1. abrade area/skin
2. apply HP
3. clean with alcohol
4. clip or shave hair
What do you need to decrease in order to make e stim more effective? (OHM's law)
What are the 2 polar effects seen with direct current (galvanic)?
anode- positive electrode
What electrode is normally seen as red, has cold effects, attracts acids (-), and repels alkaline (+)?
What electrode is seen as black, has heat effects, repels acids (-), and attracts alkaline?
What electrode has a sclerotic effect, causes vasoconstriction, and decreases hemorrhage and metabolism?
What electrode has an anti-sclerotic effect (softens tissues, good for scar tissue), causes vasodilation, and in creases hemorrhage and metabolism?
What electrode decreases tissue excitability, and nerve irritability (used for pain relief), has a weaker contraction, and decreases pain in acute stages of inflammation?
What electrode increases excitability of tissues, and nerve irritability (used for increased contraction force), has a stonger contraction, and dispels fluids by increasing circulation and stimulating absorption?