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What was Cronbach's critique of Impression Formation?
is "person perception" a skill or just a coincidence? He also said that preceptual skill may just be assumptions and judgements
What is the Halo Effect?
It is the tendency to see someone with one good/bad attribute as having all good/bad qualities
What are some examples of the Halo Effect?
Someone w/ glasses is smart, girls who twirl their hair are sexually premiscious, etc
Physical attractive people are:
More sociable, sensitive, exciting, happier, but worse parents.
Who created the Attribution Theory and what is it?
Fritz Heider, the theory that explains how people explain the causes of behavior, including personal- the internal characteristics of actor, such as effort, skill, and personality traits. Situational- External to actor, such as task difficulty/divine intervention.
What are the two principles of Fritz's Attribution Theory
- Covariation- Cause of behavior is present when behavior happens, and absent when it doesnt.
- Discounting- Any possible cause will be discounted to other options. (external causes are causing behavior)
What is Kelley's Attribution Theory?
- ANOVA Theory- 3 types of info needed to determine causation through covariations.
- Consensus-How are others acting in this situation?
- Distinctiveness- Does the Actor always act this way?
- Consistency- Does the behavior always occur this way? (Person laughing at foreign film)
What does McArthur's research find?
People use distinctiveness and consistency info as predicted, but do not use consensus info, because people use themselves as a standard of comparison
What is Jone's and Davis's correspondent inference theory also known as?
The discounting principle- you learn more about someone from their unusual behaviors, and you can infer the traits responsible for a behavior from its unique effects.
What are errors with the attribution theory?
Actor-observer differences: He tripped because of the curb, he tripped because he was clumsy. People's POV changes.