Med Term Ch 8

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ae_228
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110998
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Med Term Ch 8
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2011-10-21 23:15:42
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Cardiovascular System
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Cardiovascular System Terms
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  1. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, and peristalsis
  2. leaflet
    thin, flattened structure; term used to describe the leaf-shaped structures that compose a heart valve
  3. lumen
    tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
  4. vasoconstriction
    narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a resulf of diseases, medications, or physiological processes
  5. vasodilation
    widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls
  6. viscosity
    state of being sticky or gummy
  7. aneurysm/o
    widened blood vessel
  8. angi/o
    vascul/o
    vessel (usually blood or lymph)
  9. aort/o
    aorta
  10. arteri/o
    artery
  11. arteriol/o
    arteriole
  12. atri/o
    atrium
  13. ather/o
    fatty plaque
  14. cardi/o
    heart
  15. electo/o
    electricity
  16. embol/o
    embolus (plug)
  17. hemangi/o
    blood vessel
  18. my/o
    muscle
  19. phleb/o
    ven/o
    vein
  20. scler/o
    hardening; sclera (white of eye)
  21. sept/o
    septum
  22. sphygm/o
    pulse
  23. sten/o
    narrowing, stricture
  24. thromb/o
    blood clot
  25. ventriculo/o
    ventricle (of the heart or brain)
  26. -gram
    record, writing
  27. -graph
    intrument for recording
  28. -graphy
    process of recording
  29. -sphyxia
    pulse
  30. -stenosis
    narrowing, stricture
  31. brady-
    slow
  32. endo-
    in, within
  33. extra-
    outside
  34. peri-
    around
  35. tachy-
    rapid
  36. aneurysm
    localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
  37. arrest
    -cardiac
    -circulatory
    • condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
    • -loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation
    • -cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation
  38. bruit
    soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur
  39. cardiomyopathy
    any disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function
  40. catheter
    thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure
  41. coarctation
    narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
  42. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs
  43. ejection fraction (EF)
    calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction
  44. heart failure (HF)
    failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
  45. embolus
    mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel
  46. fibrillation
    quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, esp. of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions
  47. hemostasis
    arrest of bleeding or circulation
  48. hyperlipidemia
    excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood
  49. hypertension (HTN)
    -primary
    -secondary
    • common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic
    • -HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential hypertension
    • -HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause
  50. hypertensive heart disease
    any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure
  51. implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD)
    implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart
  52. infarct
    area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply
  53. ischemia
    local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction
  54. mitral valve prolaps (MVP)
    common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation
  55. radioisotope
    chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure
  56. palpitation
    sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," "fluttering," "skipped beats" or a pouding feeling in the chest
  57. patent ductus arteriosus
    failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary (lung) artery
  58. perfusion
    circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
  59. tetralogy of a Fallot
    congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: 1. pulmonary artery stenosis. 2. interventricular septal defect. 3. transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empty into the aorta. 4. right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle
  60. stent
    slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries
  61. thrombus
    blood clot that obstructs a vessel
  62. cardiac catheterization (CC)
    passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart
  63. electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
    graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs
  64. Holter monitor test
    -nuclear
    -stress test
    • ECG taken with a small portable recording system capable of storing up to 24 hrs or ECG tracings
    • -ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
    • -ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions
  65. cardiac enzyme studies
    blood test that measure troponin T, troponin I, and creatinine kinase (CK-MB)
  66. lipid panel
    Series of tests (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides) used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease
  67. angiography
    -coronary
    • radiographic imaging of the heart and blood vessels after injection of a contrast dye
    • angiography to determine the degree of obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart
  68. digital subtraction (DSA)
    angiography in which 2 radiographic images are obtained, the 1st one w/o contrast material and the 2nd one after a contrast material has been injected, and then compared by a computer that digitally removes the images of soft tissues, bones, and muscles, leaving only the image of vessels with contrast
  69. aortography
    radiological examination of the aorta and its branches following injection of a contrast medium via a catheter
  70. echocardiography (ECHO)
    -doppler ultrasound
    • noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart
    • -noninvasive adaptation of ultrasound technology in which blood flow velocity is assessed in different areas of the heart
  71. multiple-gated acquistion (MUGA)
    nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to produce movie-like images of the structures of the heart, including the myocardium and the mitral and tricuspid valves
  72. phonocardiography
    imaging technique that provides a graphic display of heart sounds and murmurs during the cardiac cycle
  73. scintigraphy
    diagnostic test that uses radiation emitted by the body after an injection of radioactive substances to create images of various organs or identify body functions and diseases
  74. thallium study (resting)
    scintigraphy procedure that used injected radioactive thallium and records the uptake of the isotope with a gamma camera to produce an image
  75. venography
    radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein, which indicates obstruction
  76. cardioversion
    procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest
  77. embolization
    technique used to block blood flow to a site by passing a catheter to the area and injecting a synthetic material or medication specially designed to occlude the blood vessel
  78. sclerotherapy
    injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein
  79. angioplasty
    -coronary artery bypass graft
    -percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation of the vessel using a balloon catheter
    • -surgical procedure that uses a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood supply to the heart muscle
    • -dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter under fluoroscopic guidance
  80. atherectomy
    removal of material from an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device
  81. arterial biopsy
    removal and examination of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis, a type of vasculitis
  82. catheter ablation
    destruction of conduction tissue of the heart to interrupt the abnormal condition pathway causing the arrhythmia, thus allowing normal heart rhythm to resume
  83. commissurotomy
    surgical seperation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commissures" (points of touching)
  84. laser ablation
    procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins
  85. ligation and stripping
    tyring a varicose vein (ligation0 followed by removal (stripping) of the affected segment
  86. open heart surgery
    surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of a heart-lung machine
  87. pericardiocentesis
    puncturing of the pericardium to remove excess fluid from the pericardial sac or to test for protein, sugar, and enzymes or determine the causative organism of pericarditis
  88. thrombolysis
    -intravascular
    • destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator
    • -infusion of a thrombolytic agent into a vessel to dissolve a blood clot
  89. valvotomy
    incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis
  90. venipuncture
    puntcure of a vein by a needle attached to a syringe or catheter to withdraw a specimen of blood; also called phlebotomy
  91. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    lower blood pressure by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I (an inactive enzyme) to angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor)
  92. antiarrhythmics
    prevent, alleviate, or correct cardiac arrhythmias by stabilizing the electical conduction of the heart
  93. beta-blockers
    block the effect of adrenaline on beta receptors, which slow nerve pulses that pass through the heart, thereby causing a decrease heart rate and contractillity
  94. calcium channel blocker
    block movement of calcium (required for blood vessel contraction) into myocardial cells and arterial walls, causing heart rate and blood pressure to decrease
  95. diuretics
    act on kidneys to increase excretion of water and sodium
  96. nitrates
    dilate blood vessels of the heart, causing an increase in the amount of oxygen, delivered to the myocardium, and decrease venous return and arterial resistance, which decreases myocardial oxygen demand and relieves angina
  97. peripheral vasodilators
    they treat peripheral vascular diseases, diabetic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and Raynaud disease
  98. statins
    lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liever by blocking the enzyme that produces it
  99. Don't forget to study abbreviations in the book
    There are a lot of them...

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