antropology test1

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antropology test1
2011-10-22 02:05:02

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  1. Orthogenesis
    the theory that all culture or organism go through stages and through the same direction until "prefection"
  2. Cladogenesis & Anagensis
    • Cladogensis= is the process by which a species splits into two distinct species, rather than one species gradually transforming into another.
    • Anagensis= evolution that gradual changes with each step. continous order!
  3. Punctuated Equilibrium
    • -That is, species are generally stable, changing little for millions of years.
    • - last time it happened was 65 million years ago with dinosaurs
  4. Gradualism
    a theory that profound change is the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes
  5. Adaptive Radiation
    This is where species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection.
  6. Niche
    A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (e.g., by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (e.g., limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey).
  7. Fitness
    a biological trait describes how successful an organism has been at passing on its genes. The more likely that an individual is able to survive and live longer to reproduce, the higher is the fitness of that individual.
  8. Natural Selection
    A process in nature in which organisms possessing certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an environment tend to survive,reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their essential genotypic qualities to succeeding generations.
  9. Monogenic
    An inherited disease determined by the interaction of a single pair of mutated genes
  10. Polygenic
    • -pertaining to or determined by several genes
    • -traits are continous traits governed by alleles at more than one genetic locus.
    • -skin color or eye color are examples of polygenic