a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their enviroment.
why is perception important in the stufy of OB
simply because peoples behavior is based on their percetion of what reality is , not on reality itself
Perceptions and Factors that influence perceptions
These factors can reside in perceiver; in the object ; or target being perceived; or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made
percpetions and factors that influence perceptions
target-your interpretation is heavily influecned by your personal characteristics.
perception- characteristic hat affect attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences
context-the time at which we see an object or even can influence our attention, location, light heat or any number of factors.
tries to explain the ways in whcih we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior
internally-caused behaviors are those we believe to be under the personal control the individual
externally-caused behavior is what we imagine the situationforced the individual to do.
1.distinctiveness-refers to if an individual displays different behavior in different situations
2.consensus-everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way.
3.consistency-does the person respond the same way every time
Types of shortcuts in juding others
SELECTIVE PERCEPTION-any characteristic that makes a person, an object, or an event stand out will increase the probability that we will perceive it.We cant observe everything going out about us
HALO EFFECT-when we draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic such as intelligence, socialbility or appearance. general views contaminate our specific ones.
CONTRAST EFFECTS-we don't evaulate a person in isolation. Our reaction to a person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered.
STEROTYPING-we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs
specific applications of shortcuts in organizations
EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW-form impressions of others in a tenth of a second. interviewers make perceptual judgements that are inaccurate
PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS-Pygmalion effect describe how individuals behavior is determined by others expectations
all errors affect them
decisions- choices from among two ro more alternatives.
problem-decision making occurs as a reaction.
biases and errors in decision making
bounded rationality-the human mind cannot formualte and solve complex problems with full rationality
satisfice-that is they seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient.
INTUITION-rlies on holistic associations or links between disparate pieces of info.
affectively charges-engages emotions
supplement with evidence and good judgement.
OVERCONFIDENCE BIAS-individuals whose interpersonal and intellectual abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability
ANCHORING BIAS-tendency to fixate on initial info and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent info.
CONFIRMATION BIAS-represent a sepcific case of selective perception: we seek out info that reaffirms our past choices, and discount info that contradicts them.
AVAILABILITY BIAS-tendency to base judgements on info oreadily available.
ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT- refers to staying wtih a decision even when there is clear evidence its wrong.
RANDOMNESS ERROR- tendency to predict the outcome of random events.
RISK AVERSION-to prefer a sure thing over risky outcome
HINDSGIHT BIAS-tendency to believe falsely after the outcome is known, that we'd have accurately predicted it.reduces our ability to learn from the past. lets us think were better predictors than we are can make us falsely confident.
rational decision making model
1.define the problem
2. Identify the decision criteria
3.Allocate weights to the criteria
4. Develop the alternatives
5.Evauluate the alternatives
6. Select the best alternative
Three component model of creativity
expertise- the foundation for all creative work.
creative thnking skills- personal characteristics associated with creativity, the ability to use analogies and the talent to see the familiar in a different light.
task motivation-desire to work on something bc its interesting, involving, exciting, satisfying, or personally challenging.turns creativity potential into actual creative ideas.