Heart Anatomy

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Heart Anatomy
2011-10-22 11:46:59
Heart med school

Heart Anatomy
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  1. What are the layers of the pericardium?
    • Fibrous pericardium
    • Parietal serous pericardium
    • Visceral serous pericardium
  2. Where is the fibrous pericardium attached to?
    • Inferiorly: Central tendon of the diaphragm
    • Above it is continuous with the adventitial coverings of the great vessels
  3. What is found deep to the visceral serous pericardium?
    Coronary vessels and epicardial fat
  4. What are the 2 pericardial sinuses formed by? What are they?
    • Transverse sinus and oblique sinus
    • Formed by pericardial reflections
  5. What is the arterial supply to the pericardium?
    • Pericardiocophrenic Artery
    • Musculophrenic artery
    • Both are branches of hte internal thoracic artery
  6. What is the venous drainage to the pericardium?
    Azygous system and venous thoracic nerves
  7. What is the innervation to the pericardium provided by? Mention pain sensation.
    • Phrenic nerve
    • Cardial plexus
    • No pain fibers!
  8. What is hte apex and base of the heart formed by?
    • Apex: Left ventricle
    • Base: Left atrium
  9. Describe the 2 divisions by the sulci?
    • Coronary sulcus: Between V and A
    • Interventricular sulcus: Between Ventricles
  10. Where does the right atrium receive blood from?
    • Inferior and superior VC
    • COronary sinus
    • Anterior acardiac veins
  11. What is the smooth area of the right atricum called? What does it contain?
    • Sinus venarum
    • Contains: Openings of venae cavae and coronary sinus
  12. What are the muscular ridges in the right atrium called?
    Pectinate muscles
  13. What is the crista terminalis marked by externally?
    Sulcus terminalis
  14. What is the fossa ovalis located within?
    Interatrial septum
  15. What type of valve is located between the R atrium and R ventricle?
    Tricuspid valve
  16. Where does the R ventricle send blood and how?
    To the lungs via the pulmonary trunk
  17. What is the cone shaped region of the RV that leads to the pulmonary trunk called?
    Conus arteriosus
  18. What are the trabeculae carnae in the RV?
    Irregular muscular bundles lining the rough part of the RV
  19. How do the papillary muscles connect to the valve cusps?
    Chordae tendineae
  20. What is the septomarginal trebedcula in the RV and what does it contain?
    • Moderator band
    • From the interventricular septum to the anterior papillary muscle base
    • Carries R branch of the atrioventricular bundle
  21. What type of valve is located at the pulmonary valve?
    Semilunar - 3
  22. What type of valve is the left AV valve?
  23. What is the aortic vestibule?
    Smooth superior region of the left ventricle
  24. What covers the majority of the LV?
    Trabeculae carneae
  25. What type of valve is the aortic valve?
    Semilunar - 3
  26. What is the best place to hear the tricuspid valve?
    5th or 6th intercostal spaces near the L sternal border
  27. What is the best place to heart the bicuspid/mitral valve?
    Apex of heart in the 5th itnercostal space in midclavicular line
  28. What is the best place to hear the aortic and pulmonary valves?
    2nd intercostal space to the R and L borders of the sternum
  29. What major branches are given from the right coronary artery?
    • SA nodal
    • Marginal
    • AV nodal
    • Posterior interventricular
  30. What does hte right coronary artery supply?
    • RA
    • RV
    • Interatrial septum
    • SA/AV nodes
  31. What are the major branches of the left coronary artery?
    • Anterior interventricular artery (LAD)
    • circumflex artery
  32. What does the left coronary artery supply?
    • LV
    • LA
    • Interventricular system
    • AV bundles
  33. What does the great cardiac vein travel with?
    Anterior itnerventricular artery
  34. What does the middle cardiac vein travel with?
    Posterior interventricular artery
  35. What does the small cardiac vein travel with?
    Right margnical artery
  36. What vein empties directly into the RA?
    Anterior cardiac vein