Chapter 10: States of Matter

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Chapter 10: States of Matter
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2011-10-22 12:09:50
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  1. What is the kinetic-molecular theory?
    a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
  2. What is an ideal gas?
    An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
  3. What are the five assumptions for the kinetic-molecular theory of gases?
    • 1. Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are for apart relative to their size
    • 2. Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastivc collisons
    • 3. Gas particles are in continuous, rapid, random motion (possess kinetic energy, which is energy of motion)
    • 4.There are no forces of attraction between gas particles
    • 5. The temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles of the gas
  4. What is the formula for kinetic energy? What does each variable stand for?
    • KE =(1/2)mv2
    • m - the mass of the particle
    • v - the speed
  5. What are the ways in which the kinetic-molecular theory accounts for the physical properties of the gas?
    Expansion, Fluidity, Law Density, Compressibility, Diffusion/Effusion
  6. What is a fluid?
    liquids or gases that flow
  7. Differentiate between diffusion and effusion
    Diffusion is a process by which particles of a gas spread out spontaneously and mix with other gases. In contrast, effusion is a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
  8. What is a real gas?
    A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumption of the kinetic-molecular theory
  9. Which is the least common state of matter?
    liquids
  10. What is a liquid?
    A form of matter that has a definite volume and takes the shape of its container
  11. Explain the particles in a liquid
    Particles in a liquid are in constant motion, and closer together than in a gas
  12. What is a fluid?
    A substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container
  13. What are the five properties of a liquid?
    Relatively High Density, Relative Incompressibility, Ability to Diffuse, Surface Tension, Evaporation and Boiling
  14. What is surface tension?
    A force that tends to pull adjacent parts if a liquid's surface together, there by decreases surface area to the smallest possible size
  15. What is capillary action?
    the attraction of the surface if a liquid to the surface of a solid
  16. How are vaporization and evaporation connected?
    • Evaporation is a form of vaporization
    • Vaporization - the process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
  17. Evaporation
    the process by which particles escape from the surface of a non-boiling liquid and enter the gas phase
  18. What is freezing?
    The physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of energy as heat (solidification)
  19. What are the interparticle attractions that exert stronger effects in solids vs. liquids and gases?
    dipole-dipole attracts, London dispersion forces, and hydrogen bonding exert stronger effects in solids than in liquids or gases
  20. What are the two types of solids?
    crystalline and amorphous
  21. Crystalline Solid
    consist of crystals
  22. Amorphous Solid
    one in which the particles are arranged randomly
  23. What are the four properties of a solid?
    Definite Shape and Volume, Definite Melting Point, High Density/Incompressibility, Low Rate of Diffusion
  24. What is melting? Melting point?
    is the physical change of a solid to liquid by the addition of energy as heat. The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid is its melting point.
  25. What is a supercooled liquid?
    substances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid
  26. What is a crystal structure?
    the total three-dimensional arrangement of particles of a crystal
  27. What is a unit cell?
    the smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the 3rd pattern of the entire lattice
  28. What are four types of crystals?
    • 1. ionic crystals
    • 2. covalent network crystals
    • 3. metallic crystals
    • 4.covalent molecular crystals
  29. What is an amorphous solid? Give an example.
    Particles are arranged randomly (glasses, plastics, etc.)
  30. What is a phase?
    any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties
  31. List and briefly define the six phase changes of matter
    • solid to liquid (melting)
    • solid to gas (sublimation)
    • liquid to solid (freezing)
    • liquid to gas (vaporization)
    • gas to liquid (condensation)
    • gas to solid (deposition)
  32. What is the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid?
    the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid of a given temperature
  33. What is a volatile lquid? What kind of attractive forces do the particles have? Give an example.
    A liquid that evaporates readily. Attractive forces are relatively weak.
  34. What is the boiling point? What affects it?
    the temperature at which the equilibirum vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
  35. What is the molar enthalpy of vaporization? What is the magnitude of it?
    The amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at the liquid's boiling point at constant pressure.
  36. What is the freezing point?
    the temperature at which the solid and liquid are in eqrruilibrium at 1 atm (760 torr, or 101.3 Ba) pressure
  37. What is a phase diagram? What does it reveal?
    A graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist (reveals how the states of a system change with changing temperature.
  38. triple point
    of a substance indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substanc ecan coexist at equilibrium
  39. critical point
    of a substance indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure
  40. critical temperature
    is the temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state
  41. What percentage of the Earth is water?
    75%
  42. What percentage of living things is water?
    70% to 90%
  43. What type of bond is involved in water
    polar covalent bonds, hydrogen-hydrogen bonds
  44. What happens to the volume when water feezes?
    it expands in volume as it freezes becayse its molecules form an open rigid structure
  45. What is the molar enthalpy of fusion and of vaporization?
    Under a pressure of 1 atm (101.3 kPa), water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, water's molar enthalpy of vaporization is 40.79 k7/mol

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