Toxins and Pharm

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Author:
riodesarah
ID:
111060
Filename:
Toxins and Pharm
Updated:
2011-10-22 13:35:12
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toxin side effects
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Description:
drugs and contra indiciations; toxins
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  1. Griseoflulvin causes what side effect? and if used long term causes this side effect?
    Is a teratogen and therefore contraindicated in pregnancy. If used long term will cause bone marrow suppression
  2. Which drus are ototoxic?
    aminoglycosides like genamicin and amikacin
  3. Which anibiotic is CI in renal and hepatic failure? Which version of this drug is ok in animals with these problems?
    tetracyclines. Doxy ok
  4. What is a long acting GCC used in IBD and diabetes mellitus?
    budesonaide
  5. Ergotism toxicity causes what clincial signs?
    vasoconstriction with terminal necrosis of the extremities d.t thrombosis affected animals predisposed to frostbite and gangrene. may have CNS efects, potenet oxytocic action or pituitary effects --> decreased prolactin leading to agalactia
  6. What is the hypoadrenocortisism-like syndrome blood chemistry like?
    hyponatremia, hyperkalaemia, azotemia, metabolic acidosis
  7. Which 3 ABx drugs disrupt gut flora
    sulfa, macrolides, lincosamides
  8. Zearalenone toxicity causes what?
    reproductive dysfunction like estrogenism, vulvovaginitis
  9. Fumonisin is associated with moldy corn and leads to what toxic clinical signs?
    • equine leukoencephalomalacia ;
    • hypertension and pulmonary edema in pigs PPE
  10. Tichotecenes are what?
    cytotoxic mycotoxins that lead to immunosuppression and vomiting
  11. Fescue toxicity?
    lameness and hyperthermia
  12. Glycopyrolate will cause what clinical signs when given correctly?
    mydriasis
  13. Dantrolene causes what signs?
    muscle relaxant for post anesthesia myositis in horses and for dags/cats with functional urethral obstruction
  14. Pilocarpine is what type of drug?
    miotic sometimes used to treat glaucoma
  15. Which drug, if given, will incrase toxicosis d/t warfarin? how?
    Sulfa. by displacing the anticoagulant from plasma binding sites and leading to increased free toxin.
  16. Name the drugs used most frequenctly for improving diastolic fxn and preventing thromboembolism in cats wiht HCM
    • beta blockers (atenolol);
    • ACEi (enalapril);
    • Ca2+ blockers (diltiazem)
    • diuretics if in heart failure
    • aspriin or clopidogrel
  17. What type of drug is amlodipine? uses?
    Ca2+ blocker to prevent hypertension in chronic renal failure.
  18. Which anesthetic gas has a breakdown toxin that can be nephrotoxic?
    sevoflurane to compound A
  19. how does Calcium gluconate treat hyperhalaemia?
    antagonizes the effects of elevated serum K on myocardium. keeps myocardial tissue normally excitable so the heart rhythm doesn't develop a life threatening bradycardia
  20. What is 2-pralidoxime used for?
    reversal agent for cholinesterase inhibitors
  21. what is a reversal agent for benzodiazepines?
    flumazenil
  22. In horses, what is the most nephrotoxic aminoglycocide drug in order?
    amphotercin b, neomycin, streptomycin, entamicin, amikacin?
    neomycin (most) then gentamicin, amikacin, streptomycin. amphotercin b is an anti-fungal
  23. What does monesin do and what is its toxicity?
    coccidiostat for increased productivity in cattle. Horses toxicity presents as myocardial necrosis and development of dilated cardiomyopathy. pregressive respiratory distress, heart murmur, weakness, and hypovolemic shock.
  24. Name the disease associated with each toxic plant:
    fiddleneck = amsinckia
    yellow star thistle
    fiddleneck= pyrrolizidine alkaloid

    nigropallidal encephalomalacia from yellowstar
  25. What drugs are used to treat adult heartworm?
    melarsormine and thiacetarsamide
  26. What sulfa side effects can occur?
    hypersensitivity reactions, KCS, hepatitis, blood dyscrasias.
  27. Methlyxanthines are toxins found in what food dogs can get ahold of? what does it cause?
    • Chocolate
    • CNS excitation tachycardia, vasoconstriciton, vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, PUPD, lethargy, tachycardia, cardac arrthymias seizures death
  28. What is a lidocaine bolus/ CRI used for?
    treating ventricular arrhythmias but not for supraventricular tachycardia
  29. How doesl Diltilizam work? What type of drug is it?
    Ca channel blocker, slows the heart by blocking the channels. slow conduction down the AV node and decrease ventricular rate in SVT
  30. Atenolol is what type of drug and how does it effect the heart?
    Slows downthe heart by blocking beta adrenergic stimulation to the heart. slow conduction down the AV node and decrease ventricular rate in SVT
  31. How does carotid sinus massage and vagal stimuli slow the heart?
    slows AV node conduction by activation of vagal afferents innervating the AV node
  32. This is a cholinesterase inhibitor which has be used to reverse neuromuscular blockers
    Edrophonium
  33. Pancuronium, d-tubocurarine, and atracurium are what?
    compared to succinylcholine?
    non deploarizing neuromusclular blocking agents where succinyl is a depolarizing.
  34. Name these heart meds, how they work, what they treat
    calcium channel blocker
    dilitiazam, amlodipine, verapamil; antiarrhythmic and have negative inotropic effects. USed for A fib, and supraventric tachycardia, HCM and hypertension
  35. Name these heart meds,
    ACE inhibitor
    enalapril, vasodilators
  36. Name these drugs: beta blockers
    propanolol, atenolol
  37. Name these heart meds, how they work, what they treat

    Phosphodiesterase PDE inhibitors
    • amrinone, milrinone;
    • positive inotrope
  38. Name these heart meds, how they work, what they treat

    beta adrenergic agonists
    • dopamine, dobutamine, isproteneronal, epinephrine
    • positive inotropes
  39. Name these heart meds, how they work, what they treat

    cardiac glycosides
    • digoxin, diitoxin
    • increase cardiac muscular contraction strength
    • slow heart rate by decreasing conduction velocity from AVnode
    • positive inotrope
  40. What toxicity is associated with: (pg 1 of 2)
    aminoglycosides
    cephalosporines
    sulfas
    amino = nephratoxic, ototoxic, neuromuscular blockade

    Cephalo = non toxic but maybe painful at inj site

    Sulfa= hypersensitivity and some renal issues
  41. What toxicity is associated with:
    lincosamides
    penicillins
    macrolides and cephalosporins
    linco = clinadmycin- GI upset, horses have severe colitis

    penicillins= not much but hypersensitivity allergy reactions

    macro/ceph cause pain on inj
  42. Bad "LUC" for CNS signs
    Lead = encephalopathy, diarrhea or constipation

    Urea= wildly aberrant behavior, tremors, acute death; tx with vinegar if time

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons found in insecticides = depression or stimulation/seizures

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