HUN Exam2 Lipids

Card Set Information

Author:
bkheath
ID:
111149
Filename:
HUN Exam2 Lipids
Updated:
2011-10-22 17:58:48
Tags:
HUN Exam2 Lipids
Folders:

Description:
HUN Exam2 Lipids
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user bkheath on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. 3 types lipids
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Sterols
  2. Which end of FA do u start counting carbons to determine unsaturation? methyl (omega) or carboxylic acid (alpha)
    omega (methyl end)
  3. FAs have ___ # carbon atoms
    4-24
  4. # C atoms
    Short chain:
    Med chain:
    Long chain:
    • <6
    • 6-10
    • 12
  5. Monounsaturated FAs ratio
    18:1
  6. Foods rich in MUFAs
    • olive oil
    • peanut oil
    • canola oil
  7. Foods rich in PUFAs
    • corn oil
    • sunflower oil
    • soy oil
    • fish oil
    • nuts, seeds
  8. Omega carbon is carbon in ____
    methyl group
  9. Fats spoil via ___ which is accelerated by ___
    • oxidation
    • presence of dbs which are less stable than single
  10. Causes of inhibition of oxidation of fats (4)
    • limited air exposure
    • cold temp
    • antioxidants
    • partial hydrogenation
  11. What happens to FA during hydrogenation? (2)
    Double bonds are broken, and some are changed from cis to trans configuration
  12. Essential FAs have _____ before ___carbon
    Nonessential FAs have ____ before ____carbon
    • double bonds, 9th
    • no double bonds, 9th
  13. Omega 3 technical name & abbreviation
    • alpha-linolenic acid
    • C18:3
  14. Omega 6 technical name and abbreviation
    • linoleic acid
    • C18:2
  15. Removal of H to create a double bond (after existing dbs) during the synthesis of EFAs
    Desaturation
  16. Lengthening EFAs by adding 2 carbons during synthesis
    Elongation
  17. Type of EFA which functions as local hormones which signal the immune system and various other processes
    Eicosanoids
  18. 3 types Eicosanoids
    • Thromboxanes
    • Prostaglandins
    • Leukotrienes
  19. What are eicosanoids made from?
    • Cell membrane lipids
    • Arachadonic acid (AA) and Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)
  20. Type of fats which are mportant in cell signaling, gene expression
    TGs
  21. Structure of phospholipids
    Glycerol + 2 FAs (hydrophobic end) + phosphate group (hydrophilic end)
  22. How do we get phospholipids?
    They're synthesized in body from TGs (so are nonessential in diet)
  23. An example of a ___ food additive is lecithin which functions as emulsifier
    phospholipid
  24. Why are emulsification properties of phospholipids important in body?
    Important for cell memebranes & lipoproteins (useful b/c has both hydrophilic and lipophilic properties)
  25. Where is cholesterol synthesized in body?
    Liver (so nonessential)
  26. How much cholesterol needed/dy?
    800-1500 mg/dy
  27. Cholesterol is precursor to vit ___, ___ hormones, and ___.
    Vit D, sex hormones, bile (emulsifies dietary fat)
  28. Lipids are digested:
    In stomach by gastric ___
    In small intestine by: ___-___; pancreatic ____
    • lipase
    • bile-CCK; lipase
  29. Describe structure of lipoprotein (3 main components)
    • TGs and cholesterol in center
    • Phospholipid shell
    • Proteins on surface
  30. Lipoproteins carry dietary lipids from ____ to ___ and then to ___ for excretion
    • liver to cells
    • liver
  31. 4 types of lipoproteins
    • chylomicrons
    • very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
    • low density lipoproteins (LDL)
    • high density lipoproteins (HDL)
  32. Diff b/w LDL and HDL
    • LDL: "delivery trucks" take chol TO cells
    • HDL: "garbage trucks" take chol FROM cells to liver ("good")
  33. The only lipoprotein which takes chol to liver instead of to cells
    HDL
  34. ___ and ___ carry mainly TGs while ___ and ___ carry mainly cholesterol
    • Chylomicrons, VLDL
    • LDL, HDL
  35. After delivering TGs to cells, ___ shrink to become LDL
    VLDL
  36. Remnants of ___ are used to make VLDLs
    chylomicrons
  37. TG lipid panel
    Low risk < ___ mg/dl
    Mod risk: ___ to ___ mg/dl
    High risk > ___ mg/dl
    • 150
    • 150-199
    • 200
  38. Chol Lipid Panel
    Low risk < ___ mg/dl
    Mod risk: ___ to ___ mg/dl
    High risk > ___ mg/dl

    • 200
    • 200-240
    • 240
  39. LDL/HDL Lipid Panel
    Low risk < ___
    Mod risk: ___
    High risk > ___
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  40. EFAs AI
    Linoleic (om6): M, F=
    Alpha-Linolenic (om3): M,F=
    • M= 17 g/day; F=12 g/day
    • M= 1.6 g/day; F= 1.1 g/day
  41. AMDR: ___ to ___ % of kcal
    DV: ___ g/day
    • 20-35 %
    • 65 g/day
  42. Saturated Fats
    DV= ___ g/day
    Dietary Guidelines: <___% of kcal
    • 20 g/day
    • 10
  43. Unsaturated FAs
    Om6
    -AMDR= ___ to ___% of kcal
    Om3
    -AMDR= __ to __% of kcal
    Remainder from ____
    (Ideal ratio of Om6: Om3 is ___)
    • 5-10%
    • .6-1.2%
    • MUFA
    • 6:1
  44. Cholesterol
    DV= ___ mg/day
    Dietary Guidelines: < ___ mg/day
    • 300
    • 300
  45. Types of carbohydrate based fat substitutes
    Gums, modified starches, dextrins, thickeners
  46. Types of fat-based fat substitutes
    Olestra (Olean) (but binds ot fat-sol vits and increases excretion)
  47. Disease in which plaque builds up inside blood vessels and what is the major form of this disease
    • Cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease)
    • atherosclerosis
  48. Foods which reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
    • Fiber ("viscous type")
    • B vitamins (folate, B6, B12)
    • Antioxidants
    • Soy protein
  49. Process of cancer cells multiplying and invading other tissues
    Metastasis
  50. Process of cancer (3 steps)
    • Intitiation: mutations
    • Promotion: high sat & trans fat promote cancer once started
    • Progression: metastasis
  51. Carcinogen formed from salt-cured meats
    Nitrosamines
  52. Carcinogen formed from charred meats
    Benzo-a-pyrene
  53. Anti-inflammatory, decrease autoimmune diseases, decrease rheumatoid arthritis, decrease metabolic syndromes
    Omega 3 FAs

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview