HUN Exam2 Proteins

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bkheath
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HUN Exam2 Proteins
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2011-10-22 20:48:54
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HUN Exam2 Proteins
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  1. Basic structure of AA
    • Central carbon
    • Amino group
    • Carboxylic acid group
    • Hydrogen
    • Side chain (R group)
  2. How many essential AAs?
    9
  3. How many nonessential AAs?
    11
  4. Example of when AA becomes essential
    • Ppl w/ Phenylketonuria which prevents phenylalanine from being converted to tyrosine (phenylketones build up in brain), causing tyrosine to become essential
    • (phenylalanine found in aspartame and proteins)
  5. Structure of protein
    AA linked together, forming peptide chain
  6. AAs become linked by a _____ rxn, forming a peptide bond b/w 2 AAs
    Condensation
  7. Protein Shape
    Primary:
    Secondary:
    Tertiary:
    Quaternary:
    • 1: sequence of AAs
    • 2: localized folding (alpha-helix, beta-pleated sheets)
    • 3: higher level interactions
    • 4: interaction of diff polypep chains
  8. Sickle cell disease: during DNA synthesis, ___ codon is converted to ____ codon (mutation). Can block capillaries, causing pain & inflammation b/c rb cells easily rupture, leading to low rb count & anemia
    • glutamic acid
    • valine
  9. 4 methods of protein denaturation
    • heat
    • acid
    • mechanical force
    • salt (interacts w/elec chrgs)
  10. 3 main structural functions of proteins
    • Bone & tooth matrix
    • Collagen
    • Muscle fibers
  11. Proteins are needed to make:
    • Body structures (bone, collagen, muscle)
    • Enzymes
    • Hormones
    • Antibodies
  12. Proteins play a role in fluid balance inside cells (____), b/w cells (____), and in bloodstream (___).
    • intracellular
    • interstitial
    • vascular
  13. Vacular proteins attract water and hold fluids in vascular system and are also known as
    albumin
  14. Low protein & excess protein loss results in (4)
    • kidney disease
    • large wounds/burns
    • inadequate protein synthesis
    • liver disease
  15. Proteins are buffers, so important in maintaining
    acid/base balance; pH balance
  16. What are examples of protein being involved in transport? (3)
    • Hemoglobin (move oxygen around)
    • Lipoproteins
    • Membrane pumps
  17. Conversion of an amino acid from one compound to another
    Transamination
  18. Removal of protein group
    Deamination
  19. Product of deamination which can be used to make another AA via transamination
    Keto acid
  20. NH2--> NH3--> urea
    which part takes place in liver?
    NH3--> urea
  21. Protein is __% nitrogen
    16
  22. What groups of ppl have positive nitrogen balance (intake > output; N is being retained) (4)
    Growing ppl: children, pregnant women; those increasing muscle growth; those recovering from illness
  23. RDA protein
    Adults: ___ g per kg body weight per day
    Infants (0-6 mo): ____ g per kg body weight per day
    • .8
    • 1.52
  24. AMDR protein: ___ to ___%
    DV protein: ____ g
    • 10-35%
    • 50g
  25. How to Calculate Nitrogen Balance
    143 lb / 2.2 = 65 kg
    65 kg x .8 g = 52 g protein per day
    52 g protein x .16 = 8.32 g nitrogen intake
    Given: 10.3 g nitrogen output
    8.32 g - 10.3 g = -2 g negative nitrogen balance
    • Divide lb by 2.2 to get kg
    • Multiply by .8
    • Multiply by .16
    • Input- Output = N balance
  26. Type of protein which contains all essential AAs and types of foods which contain all
    Complete protein; animal & soy proteins
  27. Type of protein which lacks 1 or more essential AA and 2 examples
    • Incomplete
    • plants, gelatin
  28. Essential AA which is present in lowest amts compared to needs and limits the protein's use in synthesis of body protein
    Limiting amino acid
  29. Measures of protein quality often factor in the protein's
    digestibility
  30. Type of measure of protein quality which gives numerical grade which compares essential AA composition to reference protein (eg egg) and does not factor in digestibility
    Chemical AA score
  31. Measure of protein quality
    • Chemical AA score
    • Biological Value (BV)
    • Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)
    • Protein-Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)
  32. Type of measure of protein quality which meaures N retention in animals fed test diet to determine if supports human growth if it's the sole dietary protein
    Biological Value
  33. What is the biological value which supports human growth if it's the sole dietary protein?
    >70
  34. Type of measure of protein quality which measures weight gain in animals fed test diet protein and which is used for protein comparison on infant formula and baby foods
    Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)
  35. Type of measure of protein quality which compares essential AAs to needs and is adjusted for digestibility; used to determine % DV; used to determine FDA standard for food protein quality
    Protein-Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)
  36. How to determine PDCAAS if .7 is AA score and .8 is digestibility score
    .7 x .8 = .56
  37. Type of vegetarian who eats no red meat (beef, pork)
    Semi-vegetarian
  38. Vegans must monitor intake of:
    AA/complementary proteins
    Vit ___
    Vit ___
    Calcium
    Iron- maybe
    Zinc- maybe
    • B12
    • D
  39. Form of severe protein-energy malnutrition which results in muscle & fat wasting, poor growth, little disease resistance, slowed metabolism, impaired brain dvlpmt; "normal" response to starvation
    (chronic)
    Marasmus
  40. Form of protein-energy malnutrition which results in poor growth, low blood albumin (which affects fluid balance-liquid accumulates in extracellular space, causing edema), little disease resistance, apathy, withdrawal; "abnormal" response to starvation; "disease of 1st child when 2nd child is born"
    (b/c put 1st child on grains when 2nd child born)
    (acute)
    Kwashiorkor
  41. Probs of excess protein intake (3)
    • Risk of bone loss if calcium intake is inadequate
    • Association b/w high meat intake and colon cancer
    • Potential for dehydration from extra N to excrete
  42. Endurance athletes need ___ to ___ g/kg/day
    Strength athletes need up to ___ g/kg/day
    • 1.2-1.4
    • 1.7
  43. Protein Digestion Overview
    Mechanical digestion in ___
    ____ and ____ in stomach
    _____ enzymes, then
    _____ enzymes.
    Absorbed as individual ____, or ____ or _____ into bloodstream
    • mouth
    • pepsin, HCL
    • pancreatic
    • brush-border
    • AAs, dipeptides, tripeptides
  44. After deamination, some AAs are used to make 3 C compounds to make ____, and some are used to make ___ to go on to the ___ or to be converted to ____ and stored
    • glucose
    • acetyl coA
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • FAs

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