Synoptic Gospels Intensive Notecards
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Regarding the structure of Matthew, what are the Three Major Divisions?
- 1.Who is this that comes? Jesus’s identity credentials.
- 2. The kingdom comes: word and works
- 3. The public ministry provokes the redemptive ministry
Regarding the structure of Matthew, what are the Five Blocks?
- The Messiah is greater than Moses (and David, Solomon, the Temple).
- 2. Words and works= word-events (something is said and then something happens)
Regarding the structure of Matthew, what is the Geographical Outline?
- Geography linked to fulfillment.
- 2. Galilee and Jerusalem= Acceptance and Rejection.
What are three major aspects of Matthew’s Primary Theme?
- Messianic Identity
- 2. Public Ministry: works and words
- 3. Redemptive ministry: SoM & SS
What are the aspects of the fulfillment language in Matthew?
- 1. At his baptism- to fulfill all righteousness (3.15).
- 2. Israel’s inability to grasp Jesus’ parables (13.14).
- 3. The cross, what must happen this way (26.54). A cluster of key ideas: The Messianic era (law and prophets transcended), The Davidic line, The kingdom of heaven, Jesus the Christ. The ‘Greater then’ theme: Law and Prophets, Moses, the Temple, Jonah, Solomon, David.
What are the various identities of Matthew’s Jesus? (recognize)
- 1.Son of David
- 2. The Christ (Messiah)
- 3. Son of God
- 4. Lord
- 5. Son of Man
- 6. Suffering Servant
- 7. New Israel. All these are within the context of the kingdom: Present, near, delayed, and future
What are the conclusions regarding Matthew’s portrayal of Jesus as Son of David? (recognize)
- 1. The connection between Son of David and the cry for mercy related to healing.
- 2. Drawing on expectations from Isaiah.
- 3. John’s question: are you “the one”.
- 4. Conclusion: Son of David will bring reversal of human oppression.
How does Matthew portray Jesus’ genealogy? (recognize)
- 1. Rabbinic midrashic forms of interpretation.
- 2. We notice the edits as signs of theological interpretation using midrash.
- What do we see?
- a) 2 x 14= David (each letter is given a numerical value).
- b) Structured around exile and return.
- c) Psalm 2: Son of David= Son of God.
- d) Women: Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, and Bathsheba.
- e) Judah “and his brothers.”
- f) Identification with Gentiles and sinners
Recognize how Jesus’ reference to himself as Son of God in Mt. 11:27-28 differs from standard Old Testament Messianic language. "All things have been committed to me by my Father. No one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal him”(11.27).
- 1. “All things” has cosmic connotations,
- 2. The mutual intimate knowledge is Trinitarian,
- 3. Jesus yoke saying (11.28) alludes to Ben Sira 51.23-27. Therefore Jesus takes the place of divine wisdom.
Explain (in 1 sentence) what the concept “enacted, inaugurated eschatology” means regarding the timing of the kingdom of God. (Slide 38)
The kingdom is present, near, delayed and future (realized eschatology versus futurist eschatology.
What is this? “It is apparent that in Jesus view, and in Matthew's portrayal of it, the coming of the kingdom is a future eschatological moment, when the Day of Judgment will take place and the final destiny of mankind will be determined. Yet again and again, this future destiny is being offered now, in the present, as Jesus announces and demonstrates the kingdom. How people respond to this present reality of the kingdom determines their future destiny in the kingdom.”
The growing impression in Matthew regarding the coming Kingdom of God
Recognize the three aspects of Jesus’ chosen identity in Matthew and which other identity is transformed by these aspects.
- 1. Son of Man
- 2. Suffering Servant
- 3. The New Israel.
This is transforming the Messianic Identity.
Explain (in 2 paragraphs) at least eight of the fourteen aspects of the concept “the Son of Man.” (Slides 55-56)
- “Son of Man” = a human being.
- Aramaic: BarNarsha.
- Hebrew: BenAdam
- Adam as first man and humankind
- The Son of Man in Daniel 2 & 7: Final Judgement
- “On the clouds of heaven” - both individual and corporate.
- Corporate personality
- Therefore Daniel 7: A new humanity comes
- Paul: the first Adam- last Adam typology
- Between the Testaments: merged with Messiah
- Yet a complex idea: ideal for kingdom mystery.
- The “Messianic Secret”- Messianic Identity reinterpreted.
- Son of Man has common features to the Suffering Servant (Israel, the remnant, the individual)
- Jesus re-enacts the history of Israel.
When is Jesus portrayed or alluded to as Suffering Servant? (recognize)
- 1. .The Father’s voice: At his baptism (3.17; Isaiah 42.1), At his transfiguration (17.5), Prior to the cross (John 12.30,32).
- 2. Jesus’ healing ministry fulfills servant passages (8.16-17; 12.15-20).
- 3. In his mission statement (20.26-27).
- 4. At the last supper (26.28) with a clear allusion to Isaiah 53.11-12.
- 5. The basis of his expected resurrection (Isaiah 53.11).
Recognize the concept of the “Jesus as Israel” typology. (See slides 69-70 for the diagram)
The people of God narrow down from all of Israel, to the purified remnant within Israel, the the single figure of the Servant and Son of Man, who in the case of the former embodies the suffering and judgement of the nation, and in the latter embodies the rebirth of the nation as the saints of the most high, the new humanity. This prophetic expectation is fulfilled in Jesus, who embodies the destiny of Israel within himself. He then delegates that role to the 12, who represent the new Israel, now including both Jews and Gentiles. (The 70, the early church- 3,000..., The Church- the body of Christ). A careful definition of typology is required. A repetitive pattern in God’s ways. Many OT passages find a meaning beyond what the original author intended. These texts “prophesy”, then a later fulfillment takes place. Jesus was the originator of a new reading of the OT through which Israel’s history of Exodus and return from exile is re‐enacted in him.
Explain (in 1 sentence each) five of the nine ways in which Jesus is the New Israel in Matthew.
- 1. The birth of Immanuel (Isaiah 7.14; 1.22‐23).
- 2. Gentiles bringing gifts (Isaiah 60.1‐2; 2.10‐11).
- 3. Israel in Babylon = Herod’s murderous ways (Jeremiah 31.15; 2.16‐18).
- 4. Moses hidden in Egypt from Pharaoh like the child Jesus hidden in Egypt.
- 5. Jesus returning from Egypt as Israel (Hosea 11.1; 2.14).
- 6. Israel/Jesus is Yahweh’s son (Deuteronomy 6.13‐16; 8.3‐5; 4.4, 7, 10).
- 7. The stone the builders rejected is Israel/Jesus (Psalm 118.22; 21.42).
- 8. On the cross Jesus speaks Israel’s national lament (Psalm 22; 27.35, 39, 43, 46).
- 9. The “third day” rising of Israel = Jesus resurrection (Hosea 6.2; 16.21; 17.23; 20.19; 21.35).
What are the seven ways that Matthew merges Jesus with Yahweh? (recognize)
- His words have more authority than Moses (5.21-22)
- He pardons sinners as the Son of Man (9.3)
- He sends out his angels to gather the elect (24.31)
- He sits on the throne at the Day of Judgement (25.31)
- Elijah introduces Yahweh = Jesus (Mal. 4.5-6)
- At the triumphal entry the praise of infants is praise to Yahweh (Psalm 8. 1-2)
- Jesus is Yahweh, the stone of stumbling (Isaiah 8.14; 21.42)
What are the aspects of Matthew’s climax? (recognize)
- The mountain= theophany
- All authority in heaven and earth= divine
- “All authority” - “all nations” - “all his teaching” - “all of the days.”
- What will apply due to his ascension and return is now applied.
- The Trinitarian formula
- The promise of continual presence.
- Receiving worship.
Recognize which role the author of Mark assumed for which Apostle and, therefore, what is the Gospel of Mark’s “take” on Jesus.
- With Mark we begin with authorship, due to the strong case that can be made that Mark was the “interpreter” (private assistant) to the apostle Peter.
- Mark is therefore Peter’s “take” on Jesus
Recognize Mark’s audience and likely place of authorship.
- It was clearly written for a Gentile audience. Many Jewish cultural and social features, and Aramaic words, are explained or translated for the reader.
- The gospel is full of Latinisms.
- The evidence we can piece together from the New Testament places Mark in Rome with Peter.
What’s the internal evidence within Mark for it being authored by an associate of a certain Apostle? (recognize)
- Mark follows the same outline as the sermons in Acts.
- Many Jesus storied end with what would be a fitting challenge line by an evangelist.
- Mark has many vivid eye-witness characteristics.
- Mark reads like an “action and motion” story.
- Mark has simple, story telling grammar.
- Mark tells the story of Peter’s failures and embarrassment.
- Jesus’ humanity is overtly described.
What are Mark’s Gospel features relating to Peter?
- No infancy section, starts with Peter’s call.
- Galilean ministry is central, around Capernaum, Peter’s home.
- Vivid narrative, first hand.
- Stories favourable to Peter are omited (‘blessed’ at Ceasarea Philippi and walking on water), while those showing embarrassment are included (denial) with great detail.
- Peter’s frail humanity is completely exposed: in contrast with Jesus.
- To know Jesus is to be embarrassed, exposed, and transformed.
What are the striking features of Peter’s life? (recognize)
- How the world grew on him.
- The most original Jesus source.
- Embarrassment and shame.
- Epitome of brokenness and usefulness.
- An inviting journey.
- Personal transformation.
- Legacy: enduring suffering and persecution.
Recognize the context (setting) of Mark.
- Second Temple Messianic expectations
- The socio-political context
- The revolutionary environment.
Explain (in 1 paragraph) the man Peter ended up becoming for Jesus Christ (Slides 109-110) and explain (in 2 paragraphs) four of the six the application points regarding Peter’s life from Slide 114.
- Peter is “The Rock” (109)
- Jesus’ prophetic word (John 21.18-19)
- Peter’s fearlessness
- Peter’s martyrdom.
- In Acts: The man for Jesus Christ (110)
- Boldness and authority- Preacher and healer
- Humility (gives way to Paul- Acts 15)
- Focused on the name of Jesus Christ.
- Two works (110)
- Inner transformation
- Holy Spirit power
- Peter: application (114)
- Did Peter understand what “follow me” meant?
- He was so broken, through failure and shame, that even meeting the risen Christ did not work, at first.
- Peter came to the end of himself, to real faith.
- Jesus knew all this from the start (renaming). So this is the kind of broken leader Jesus is looking for!
- This kind of leader is not corrupted by spiritual power and leadership position.
- Jesus knows Peter better than he knows himself, from the beginning, to the end.
Recognize Mark’s simple outline and the main aspects of Mark’s basic outline.
- Mark’s simple outline is based on geography and movement.
- The basic outline:
- Preparation for ministry (1.1-13)
- The Galilean ministry (1.14-8.26)
- A)First phase (1.16-3.6)
- B)Second phase (3.7-5.43)
- C)Third phase (6.7-8.26)
- The journey to Jerusalem (8.27-10.52)
- Ministry in Jerusalem (11.1-13.37)
- The passion and empty tomb (15.1-16.8)
Recognize five ways that Mark conveys the theme of action in his theology.
- Geography and motion with little teaching content (12%)
- Jesus is a man of action. The kingdom of God is breaking into history in and through him.
- Two mission statements: Jesus has come to 1. Preach and 2. To give his life as a ransom for many.
- Ministry section: 45%
- Ministry also takes place on the journey and in Jerusalem. The total is well over half.
Recognize how Mark portrays his theme of authority and conflict via a three-step process.
- Works of authority.
- Offense caused to the religious “authorities,” who plot Jesus’ death.
- The trial and death of Jesus, followed by his triumphant resurrection.
Match which authority and conflict stories are associated with each the following sections of Mark: the 1st phase of Jesus’ Galilean ministry:
- Teaching “with authority” and giving orders to demons (1.21-28)
- Calling the disciples, who follow “without delay” (1.20)
- The Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins (2.5-10)
- Authority over the fever (1.31-31)
- Authority over the sickness and demons in the whole village (1.32-34)
- Authority throughout Galilee (1.39)
- Speaking to leprosy (1.41-42)
- Summoning Levi, who leaves his business right away (2.14)
- Questioning Jesus’ authority: Jesus eats with sinners (2.13-17), Jesus disciples do not fast (2.18-19), Jesus disciples “work” on the Sabbath (2.21-27), Jesus “breaks” the Sabbath by healing (3.1-6)
Match which authority and conflict stories are associated with each the following sections of Mark: the 2nd phase of Jesus’ Galilean ministry:
- Delegated authority to the 12 (3.14‐15).
- Conflict stories:
- His family say he is out of his mind (3.20‐21).
- The “authorities”say he is possessed (3.22‐ 30).
- Jesus comments on his real family (3.21‐23).
- Works of authority:
- Authority over nature (4.41).
- Authority over demons (5.1‐20).
- Authority over sickness and death (5.21‐34; 5.35‐43).
Match which authority and conflict stories are associated with each the following sections of Mark: the 3rd phase of Jesus’ Galilean ministry:
- The mission of the 12: preached, drove out demons and healed (6.12‐13).
- They reported back on what they had done and taught (6.30).
- Two conflict stories embedded in 8 miracle (authority) stories: Authority/conflict: Galilee third phase
- Authority/conflict: Galilee third phase
- 1. Jesus feeds the 5000 (6.30‐44).
- 2. Jesus walks on the lake (6.45‐53).
- 3. Genessaret: People healed from the whole region (6.53‐ 56).
- 4. A conflict story: Jesus contradicts the Pharisees on ritual cleanness (7.1‐22).
- 5. A daughter delivered of a demon (7.24‐30).
- 6. A deaf and dumb man healed (7.31‐36).
- 7. Jesus feeds the 4000 (8.1‐10).
- 8. A conflict story: The Pharisees ask for a sign (8.11‐13).
- 9. Jesus teaches his disciples about the leaven of the Pharisees (8.14‐21).
- 10. Jesus heals a blind man (8.22‐26).
tch which authority and conflict stories are associated with each the following sections of Mark: Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem.
- 1. The climax: For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many (10.45).
- 2. The previous statement: Gentile rulers, whose "high officials exercise authority" over the people (10.42).
- 3. On the journey: John’s question about spiritual authority exercised by someone who is not “one of us”(9.38‐50).
Match which authority and conflict stories are associated with each the following sections of Mark: ministry in Jerusalem.
- Two acts of judgment
- Judgment on the fig tree (11.12‐14)
- Judgment on the temple (11.15‐19)
- Judgment on the fig tree (11.20‐25)
- Seven confrontations in the temple area
- 1. Jesus authority questioned by chiefpriests, scribes and elders(11.27‐33)
- 2. A parable against the priests and scribes(12.1‐12)
- 3. The Pharisees and Herodianstry to trap Jesus (12.13‐17)
- 4. The Sadduceestry to trap Jesus (12.18‐27)
- 5. A scribaltheological question (12.28‐34)
- 6. The Messiah: David's Lord (12.35‐40)
- The temple treasury: who really gives? (12.41‐42)
- They ask:
- "By what authority do you do these things?"
- "Who gave you this authority?" Jesus replies:
- "Answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I am doing these things."
- When they cannot answer his question, he says:
- “Neither will I tell you by what authority I am
- doing these things.”
- The whole religious system unites
- When Judas offered to hand Jesus over to the chief priests, "They were delighted to hear this and promised to give him money" (14.10‐11).
- Those who came to arrest Jesus, with swords and clubs, were "sent from the chief priests, the teachers of the law, and the elders" (14.43).
- Jesus trial is mentioned with these words, again showing the total system of religious authority: "They took Jesus to the high priest, and all the chief priests, elders and teachers of the law came together" (14.53).
- "The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death" (14.55).
- The decision to hand him over to Pilate is stated as follows: "Very early in the morning, the chief priests, with the elders, the teachers of the law and the whole Sanhedrin, reached a decision" (15.1).
- The chief priests accused him of many things before
- Pilate (15.3).
- When Pilate wanted to release Jesus, the chief priests stirred up the crown to ask for Barabbas instead (15.11).
- The chief priests and the teachers of the law mocked him as he hung on the cross (15.31).
Recognize the conclusion about Mark’s portrayal of Jesus’ authority
Conclusion about authority: Authority to confront and replace the entire religious system!
Recognize aspects of the “shadow of the Cross” in Mark
- Book of Mark: Jesus’ Ministry = 62% and Jesus’ Passion = 38%
- The passion narrative takes up 38% of Mark's gospel (Matthew 14.6, Luke 14.4).
- The Father’s voice established his calling (1.11 with Psalm 2 and Isaiah 42.1): Davidic Messiah through the role of the Suffering Servant.
- The story of John’s beheading is told in full (6.14‐ 29). John and Jesus have a linked destiny (1.2‐8; 8.28; 9.12‐13).
- Repeated predictions from Caesarea Philippi to Jerusalem.
- The cup he will have to drink (10.39).
Recognize aspects of the Messianic Secret in Mark. (Slide 141)
- When Peter said “You are the Christ”Jesus “warned them not to tell anyone about him” (8.29‐30).
- When the demons recognise him, they are rebuked to silence (1.24‐25, 34; 3.11‐12).
- Jesus moves away from possible public acclaim, or wants to keep his presence secret (1.35‐38; 7.24; 9.30).
- He teaches his disciples the inner secrets of the kingdom of God (4.10‐11, 33‐34).
Recognize how Jesus redefines the concept of Messiah in Mark and recognize
Ralph Martin and James Dunn’s comments on Jesus’ redefinition. (Slides 142-143)
- Other’s call him Son of David, (Bartimaeus ‐ 10.46‐47; The crowds ‐11.10), or Christ (Mark ‐1.1; Peter ‐8.29; Those who mock ‐15.32).
- Jesus repeatedly names himself as the Son of Man (2.10; 2.27‐28; 8.31; 8.38; 9.9‐10; 9.30‐ 31; 10.33; 10.45; 13.26; 14.21, 41; 14.62).
- Jesus uses language that alludes to the Suffering Servant in Isaiah (10.45; 14.24‐25). His predictions of death and resurrection combine the identity of the Son of Man with the Suffering Servant.
Jesus’ whole ministry was such as to encourage a response and an allegiance. Yet his coolness and indifference to the honorific titles [Christ, Son of David] and enthusiastic gestures tells us he came to be a sort of Messiah no one would suspect. Ralph Martin, p 96
He did not take what might appear the easiest course –that of completely renouncing the title. He did not deny his right to the title, but attempted to re‐educate his hearers in the significance of it for him [and for them, we might add]. And the claims he made to Messiahship and Messianic authority were of a parabolic sort whose significance was there, plain for all to see whose eyes were not blind and whose ears were not clogged by misconceptions (8.17‐21). James Dunn, p 112
Recognize Mark’s chosen title for Jesus. (Slide 144)
- The title of the Gospel is: “The beginning of the gospel about Jesus Christ, the Son of God”(1.1).
- The Father’s voice calls Jesus “My Son”(1.11).
- The Father’s voice at the transfiguration repeats this name (9.7).
- In the parable/allegory Jesus is the “beloved Son” (12.6).
- Jesus accepts the title before the High Priest (14.61).
- The story of the cross reaches its climax with the confession of the Gentile centurion: “Surely this man was the Son of God”(15.38). The first confession of faith is therefore made by a Roman soldier!
Recognize Ralph Martin’s comment on the centurion’s confession in Mark 15:38. (Slide 145)
On this soldier’s lips is placed the early Christian confession, hailing Jesus as God’s son …The evangelist evidently intended that the confession on the soldiers lips should represent the first fruits of Gentile Christianity, and sought to offset the total Jewish rejection of the Messiah by the hint and promise that the outlook for Gentile evangelism in the Roman world is full of hope and prospect. Ralph Martin, p 131
Recognize Derek Morphew's view/conclusion rearding the author, date and place of the Gospel of Matthew.
- Date- Before the fall of Jerusalem
Recognize the descripton of the contents of Mark, including the titles of the seven basic sections, according to Carson and Moo.
- Mark's story of Jesus' ministry is action oriented. Recounting little extended teaching of Jesus, Mark shifts scenes rapidly. Jesus is sonstantly on the move, healing, exorcising demons, confronting opponents, and instructiong the disciples. This fast-paced narrative is punctuated by six transitional paragraphs or statements, which divide Mark's account into seven basic sections:
- 1. Preliminatires to the ministry
- 2. First part of the Galilean ministry
- 3. Second part of the Galilean ministry
- 4. The concluding phase of the Galilean ministry
- 5. The way of glory and suffering
- 6. Final ministry in Jerusalem
- 7. The passion and empty-tomb narratives
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