HUN Exam2 Fat Soluble Vitamins

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bkheath
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HUN Exam2 Fat Soluble Vitamins
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2011-10-24 13:32:27
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HUN Exam2 Fat Soluble Vitamins
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HUN Exam2 Fat Soluble Vitamins
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  1. 2 forms of Vitamin A and where they come from
    • retinol FAs- animal foods
    • Beta-carotene- plants
  2. What are retinol-FAs and beta-carotene converted to?
    Retinoids
  3. 3 types of Retinoids
    • Retinol
    • Retinal
    • Retinoic acid
  4. Precursors to Vitamin A
    Carotenoids
  5. How is Vit A important in vision?
    • Maintainance of cornea
    • Component of rhodopsin which is an eye protein that converts light impulses to nerve impulses & is important for color vision
  6. General functions of Vit A (6)
    • Vision
    • Cell Differentiation
    • Growth & Bone Dvlpmt
    • Immunity
    • Antioxidant
    • Regulation of Gene Expression
  7. What role does vit A play in cell differentiation?
    It can turn on or off certain genes (esp epithelial skin cells), which affects what type of cell an immature cell will become
  8. Vit A affects the activity of cells that form and break down bone
    T
  9. How does vit A affect immunity?
    Maintains health of epithelial tissue
  10. What type of Vit A precursor is antioxidant?
    Carotenoids
  11. Food sources of vit A
    • Retinoids: liver, fish oils, eggs, fortified milk & cereal
    • Carotenoids: dark green, orange/deep yellow veg, some fruits
  12. RDA vit A
    Adults 19-30:
    M= ___ ug RAE/dy
    F= ___ug RAE/dy
    • 900
    • 700
  13. RDA Retinoids vs Precursor vit A
    1 ug retinol = ___ RAE (retinol activity equivilants)
    ___ ug beta-carotene = 1 ug retinol = 1 RAE
    • 1
    • 12
  14. Symptoms ___ deficiency:
    Reduced immunity
    Perm blind (xerophthalmia)
    Keratinization (hardening) of tissues
    Growth retardation
    Vit A
  15. Symptoms Vit A excess are only when ___ are consumed in excess
    retinoids
  16. Permanent liver, bone, eye damage, maybe birth defects all may result from:
    Excess retinoid intake
  17. UL of retinol
    3000 mcg/day (2x DV)
  18. Apricots, spinach, sweet potatoes, mango are all rich in ____
    Vit A
  19. Active form vs inactive forms of vit D (names)
    • Active form: 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
    • -or 1,25 (OH)2 D3 or calcitriol (stored in kidney)
    • Inactive: 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (stored in liver)
  20. What is precursor to vit D?
    cholesterol
  21. In order for Vit D to be activated, there are ____ steps in the kidneys and liver
    hydroxylation
  22. Vit D increases ___ & ___ absorption of calcium, and increases reabsorption of calcium from ___ to ___
    • intestinal, kidney
    • bone to blood
  23. Both vit __ and vit __ can participate in cell differentiation
    A, D
  24. Food sources of ___ include eggs, liver, fatty fish, butter, fortified milk & cereals
    Vit D
  25. Adult AI values of Vit D
    19-50 yrs: ___ ug/dy
    51-70 yrs: ___ ug/dy
    71+ yrs: ___ ug/dy
    • 5
    • 10
    • 15
  26. Vit D Deficiency
    Reduced bone ____
    ____ which causes stunted growth, skeletal abnormalities
    ____ which causes increased fracture risk "soft bones"
    • mineralization
    • Rickets
    • Osteomalacia
  27. Vit D Excess
    ___ : calcium deposits in ____ (3)
    • Hypercalcemia
    • heart, kidneys, blood vessels
  28. UL of Vit D supplementation
    50 mcg/day
  29. Vit E forms (2) & most active form
    • Tocopherols
    • -alpha-tocopherol most active form
    • Trienols
  30. Vit E protects ___ (3), as well as lipids, and is ___ (prevents DNA mutations)
    • cell membranes, lungs, blood cells
    • antioxidant
  31. Food sources Vit E (7)
    plant oils, whole grains, nuts & seeds, avocado, spinach, broccoli
  32. Vits __ are stable when cooked
    A, D, K
  33. Vits __ are not vulnerable to heat and oxidation
    E
  34. Vit E RDA for adults 19+
    15 mg/dy
  35. Vit E deficiency can cause:
    ___ nerve ___
    hemolytic ___ in preterm infants
    • peripheral nerve degeneration
    • anemia
  36. Vit E is relatively non-toxic, however can interfere w/___
    vit K
  37. Forms of Vit K
    Plants:
    Animals & bacteria:
    Menatione:
    • phylloquinones
    • menaquinones
    • menadione
  38. Vit K is important in blood clotting & ____
    bone protein synthesis
  39. Why is vit K important for bones?
    Bone protein synthesis by activating osteocalcin
  40. Food sources vit K (4)
    • liver
    • green veggies
    • milk, eggs
  41. AI Vit K
    M: ___ ug/dy
    F: ___ ug/dy
    • 120
    • 90
  42. Vit K deficiency causes: (2)
    • impaired clotting
    • imparied bone formation
  43. Rare to have toxic levels of ___ unless supplementing w/high doses
    Vit K
  44. __ is produced by intestinal bacteria but not in sufficient amts
    Vit K
  45. How can levels of vit K be negatively affected?
    • Antibiotic therapy
    • Excess A or E
    • Anti-coagulant meds
  46. __ injections are given to newborns
    Vit K

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