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- Habituation is a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations
- How babies learn
Theory of Mind
attributing thoughts and feelings to other people other than themselves. a theory because there are no outward signs that people have other knowledge. we are guessing their thoughts and emotions
- easy, difficult, slow to warm up
- basic trust
- egotistical development of teens
- "i am unique and special"
"everyone is looking at me"
the bad stuff that can get to the baby through the placenta
- quick thinking intelligence
- perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships.
- knowledge that comes from prior learning and past experiences.
- include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams.
- based upon facts and rooted in experiences.
when the baby turns its head toward touch or sound (helps with breastfeeding)
Fitting new info into your schema
- Try to interpret information within a certain schema
- example: you see moose and think "cow"
Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world.
both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge.
If the child's sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry,
- making distinctions made between males, females
- social learning theory--watch the people around them to assign characteristics to genders.
- By age 5, a child now has the ability to gender type by observing beavior, traits and tools used by men and women
- a cultural specific timetable for events to occur
- Events include marriage, having children, etc
- Underlying symptom is the deterioration of the
- neurotransmitter that produces ACH Acytecolon.
- Shriveled neurons that produce ACH
- Plaque build-up in the brain
- quantity is the same despite the shape of container its in
- part of Piaget's Operational Thought Stage
- concrete thinking
- Those are the rules—“because I said so”—hit the kids if need to
- Kids develop low self-esteem, not very motivated
- Both demanding but sensitive, rules are talked about “I expect you make good grades in school because…”
- Most effective type
- Not strict—they’re lenient—not as much structure—not using punishment
- Children become aggressive
- experience our life through our senses
- Object permanence—awareness that things exist even when you can’t see them.
- Around 8 months old
Formal Operational Stage
- characterized by abstract thinking
- By the time of 12 thinking expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking
- occurs from 4-7
- the child begins to go beyond recognizing and is able to use words and images to refer to objects
- begins to learn that they are capable of physically manipulating objects
Give order of Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development
- 1. sensorimotor thought
- 2. peroperational thought
- 3. operational thought
- 4. formal operational thought
- Theories of moral development
- precoventional--obedience and punishment
- conventional--maintaining social order (socio-influence)
- postconvential--social contract & individual rights/ following ones beliefs even if they are against those of society. moral perserverance
- Stage 1 - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
- Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
- Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt
- Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority
- Stage 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion (or "Diffusion")
- Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Stage 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation
- Stage 8 - Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
- The child will let mother out of sight without anxiety and rage because she has become an inner certainty as well as an outer predictability.
- The balance of trust with mistrust depends largely on the quality of maternal relationship.
identitiy v. role confusion
- adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others
- accrued confidence ftom inner sameness and continuity prepared in the past are matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others
intimacy vs. isolation
Body and ego must be masters of organ modes and of the other nuclear conflicts in order to face the fear of ego loss in situations which call for self-abandon