mini 2 dx

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Author:
sweetlu
ID:
111365
Filename:
mini 2 dx
Updated:
2011-12-11 10:54:28
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enzymes
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enzymes
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  1. decreased plasma ChE
    hepatic disease or inherited abnormal variant
  2. Increased ACh in plasma
    • -Nephrotic syndrome
    • -Liver regeneration
    • -AChE inhibition via Organophosphate poisoning
  3. tx for increased ACh
    • atropine
    • -binds ACh-r
  4. AST
    • -Aspartate Transaminase-
    • CM and SkM
    • Liver and kidneys
    • RBCs
  5. increased AST
    • **MI and acute viral hepatitis**
    • -hemolysis
    • -Phsiological in neonates
    • -circulatory failure causing cell death
  6. ALT
    • -Alanine Transaminase-
    • liver
    • <SkM and CM
    • <kidney
  7. Increased ALT
    • acute viral hepatitis (marked increase)
    • -circ failure

    • moderate increase in
    • cirrhosis, jaundice, post op CM, SkM disease
  8. ALP
    • -Alkaline Phosphatase-
    • Liver and bone
    • ** used as a marker of osteoblast activity**
  9. changes in ALP levels
    • biliary tract and bone disease
    • pregnancy
    • infancy and childhood
    • high fat meals
  10. AP
    • -Acid Phosphatase-
    • prostate, bone, RBC, platelets
  11. LDH
    • LDH-1 and 2 = MI
    • LDH5 = liver
  12. CK
    • -creatine kinase-
    • CK MM in SkM
    • CK MB in CM
    • CK BB in brain
    • increases can be indicative of tissue damage
  13. GGT
    • -glutamyl transferase-
    • -increased by drug and EtOH induced SER proliferation
    • liver, kidney, pancrease
    • NOT IN BONE
    • **can be used to differentiate tissue of origin of ALP**
  14. inc ALP and GGT, AST and ALT wnl
    bile duct is point of concern
  15. inc AST and ALT, GGT and ALP wnl
    liver is point of concern
  16. amylase
    found mainly in pancrease, increases in serum and urine indicative of pancreatitis
  17. reticulocyte count
    marker of effective erythropoesis
  18. ESR
    • -erythrocyte sedimentation rate-
    • measure acute phase response
  19. polychromasia
    • increased reticulocytes
    • -large multicolor RBC caused by persistance of RNA
  20. spherocyte
    • RBC without biconcavity, hyperchromia and decreased size
    • -AI hemolytic anemia or hereditary
    • -hereditary spherocytosis caused by non functioning spektrin of ankyrin
  21. drepanocyte
    sickle cell RBC
  22. Dacrocyte
    • Tear drop RBC
    • - caused by bone marrow infiltration or myelofibrosis
  23. schistocyte
    fragmented RBC caused by hemolytic anemia or any RBC b/d
  24. target cells
    • bulls eye cells
    • -thallesemia, Fe def anemia, EtOH liver disease
  25. punctate basophilia
    • -course basophilic stippling-
    • -lead poisoning
  26. HJ bodies
    • -purple nuclear DNA
    • -non functioning spleen
  27. Heinz bodies
    • -particles of denatured Hb on inner face
    • -G6PD defeciency
  28. siderocytes
    • Fe granules not bound to Hb
    • -Fe overload-
  29. alpha 1 globulins
    • a1 antitrypsin (lung)
    • a- lipoprotein
  30. a2 globulins
    • haptoglobin
    • ceruplasmin
    • a2 macroglobulin (protease inhibitor all over body)
  31. b1 globulins
    • transferrin
    • b-lipoprotein
  32. b2 globulins
    • c3
    • fibrinogen
  33. gamma globulins
    Ig
  34. increase bleeding time
    • - platelet disorders
    • - vWF deficiency
    • - ASA
    • - uremia
  35. increased PT
    • - F7 (extrinsinc pw)
    • - F10,5 , 2 and 1 (common pw)
    • -warfarin therapy
  36. increased PTT
    • - F11, 9, 8 (intrinsic p/w) (F12 affected, but not significant)
    • - F10, 5, 2, 1 (common p/w)
    • - heparin therapy
  37. Vit K requiring factors
    • - F2, 7, 9, 10
    • (platelet PM bound)
  38. Testing Fe status
    • - serum ferratin
    • -TIBC (total iron binding capacity)
  39. UDP-glucuronyl Transferase
    Liver enzyme that conjugates
  40. differentiation b/t non-hemolytic anemia and hemolytic anemia
    - reticulocyte count< 3% = NON hemolytic

    - reticulocyte count > 3%= hemolytic
  41. sarcoma
    • - malignant cancer of mesenchymal origin
    • - spreads via blood
    • - poor prognosis
  42. carcinoma
    • - malignant cancer of epithelial origin
    • - spreads via lymph
    • - better prognosis

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