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The respiratory system supplies this.....
and gets rid of this........
Discards Carbon Dioxide
The Respiratory system consits of these 6 parts:
- Nose & Nasal Cavity
- Throat (pharynx)
- Voice Box (larynx)
- Windpipe (trachea)
- Bronchial Tubes
What are the functions of the respiratory System ?
there are 6 of them
- Cleaning and Filtering Air
- Gas Exchange
- Gas Transport
The Nose contains these 4 parts:
- External Nares (nostrils)
- Nasal Septum
- Nasal Conchae
- Internal Nares
Where are the Nasal Conchae and what do they do?
- Located on the lateral walls in the nose.
- They swirl air and expose nasal lining to more air contact that warms and moisents air.
What is the Nasal Septum made of?
Cartilage & Bone
Where are the Intenal Nares ?
Back opening of the nasal cavity into the Pharynx
What is the function of the Olfactory Epithelium ?
Detection of smell
What do the Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium line?
Nasal Cavity, Nasopharynx & the Trachea
What FUNCTIONS do the Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium PERFORM?
- Large Blood supply warms air
- Mucous moistens air & traps dust
- Cila moves mucous towards the pharynx
Paranasal Sinuses open into what cavity?
The Nasal Cavity
What are the Functions of the Paranasal Sinuses?
They lighten the skull and RESONATE the Voice
are found in ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal & maxillary bones.
Mucous Cells are also called .....
Describe the Pharynx.
- 5 inch long muscular tube that extends from the interal nares to the Larynx.
- It also has 3 regions.
Name the 3 regions of the Pharynx:
- Nasopharynx (behind the nasal cavity)
- Oropharynx (behind the mouth)
- Laryngopharynx (behind the larynx)
What are the functions of the Pharynx?
- Passage way for food and air
- Resonating chamber for speech production
- Tonsils for protection against infection
Describe the Nasopharynx.
- Extends from the Internal Nares to the Soft Palate
- Passageway for AIR only
- Lined with Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium with Goblet Cells
The Nasopharynx is the opening of the ..... from the middle ear.
Auditory or Eustachian Tubes
The Nasopharynx contains the ..... tonsils.
Adenoid or Pharyngeal Tonsils in the roof.
Describe the Oropharynx.
- Extends from the soft Palate to the Epiglottis.
- Lined with Stratified Squamous Epithelium.
- Passageway for Food & Air
What tonsils are found in the Oropharynx?
- Palatine tonsils, found on side walls
- Lingual tonsils, under the base of the tongue
Describe the Laryngopharynx.
- Extends from the Epiglottis to the Cricois Cartilages.
- Ends @ Esophagus inferiorly.
- Common passage way for Food & Air
- Lined with Stratified Squamous Epithelium.
Describe the Larynx.
- Made of nine cartilages & tissues
- 3 singles cartilages = thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
- 3 pared cartilages = arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform
- Contains the vocal cords & voice box
Describe the Trachea.
- 5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter.
- Extends from the Larynx into the chest where it divides to form the two Bronchi.
- 16 - 20 incomplete C shaped cartilage rings.
- Lined with Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium & Goblet Cells
Name the Top & Bottom of the lungs:
Apex & Base
Name the fissures of the Right Lung:
- Oblique Fissure
- Horizontal Fissure
These result in 3 lobes.
What the 3 lobes of the right lung?
Superior, Inferior & Middle
Name the Fissure of the Left lung:
- Oblique Fissure
- Resuls in 2 lobes = the Superior & Inferior
What feature does the left lung have?
The cardiac notch, which mades way for the heart
Blood Vessels and Airways enter the lungs at the ......
Hilum, which form the root of the lungs
What membrane are the lungs covered with?
Visceral Pleura Membrane
.......... are smaller compartments within the lobes.
The Lung Lobules consist of what parts?
- Terminal Bronchioles
- Respiratory Bronchioles
- Alveolar Ducts
- Alveolar Sacs
- Extensive blood supply via cappillaries
Pneumocytes are ........ cells.
Name & give the function of the 3 types of Pneumocytes.
- Type I = make the alveolar epithilium wall
- Type II = (septal) Secrete Surfactant
- Type III = Alveolar macrophage cells, eat dust, bacteria ... etc.
Blood in the capillaries & air in the lungs are always seperated by the ........ membrane.
Describe & give the function of the Respiratory Membrane.
- Made it of six layers
- Four Tissue & 2 Fluid
- it seperates the blood from the alveolar air
- allowing oxygen & carbon dioxide to diffusion
Ventilation is called ............
Negative Draft Ventiliation
Breathing in is called ..........
Inspiration or Inhalation
Breathing out is called ..............
Expiration or Exhalation
Pressure within the lung is called ..............
Pressure within the pleural cavities is called .......
Intrapleural Pressure is always ..... than atmospheric pressure.
What is the functions of Intrapleural Pressure?
This keeps the lungs attached to chest wall and inflated.
Explain Boyle's Law
As the size of a closed container decreases, pressure insides is increased.
As the size of a closed container Increases, pressure insides is decreases.
......... is quiet Resting Ventilation.
Explain how air moves into the lungs:
Negative Air Draft
The contraction of the diaphragm & external intercostal muscels enlarges the chest and reduces alveolar pressure to less than the atmospheric pressure
Resting Inspriration or Inhalation is also called ................
What happens when the diaphragm & intercosta muscles relax?
Air is pushed or squeezed out of the lungs as the chest gets smaller.
What happens to the aveoli when you exhale?
Elastic Recoil creates Alveolar pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure.
Deep breathes are ........... Inspiration, which involves the back muscels to expand the chest.
The diaphragm & external intercostal muscels contract more forcefully
Forced Expiration involves what muscels?
Internal Intercostal muscles contract compressing the rib cage and making the chest more narrow, the diaphragm is forced up further.
Lung Volume =
One measure of a quantity of air
Lung Capacity =
the sum of two or more volumes
Ventilation Rate =
the number of breathes per minute
A ................. is used to measure volumes and capacities.
The record of spirometer is called ..........
What is the range of an adults resting ventilation rate?
12 to 18 breaths / minute
Tidal Volume =
Vt Volume of air in one breath
Inspiratiory Reserve Volume (IRV) =
Volume of air inspired in addition to tidal volume (Vt)
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) =
Volume of air expired in addition to Vt (tidal volume)
Sneezing / Coughing
Residual Volume (RV) =
Volume of air that cannot be expired even with maximum forced expiration
Inspiratory Capacity (IC) =
Vt = IRV
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Functional Residual Capacity =
(FRC) = ERV + RV
this cannot be measured ONLY calculated
Vital Capacity (VC) =
Vt + IRV + ERV
Total Lung Capacity =
Vt + IRV + ERV + RV
Forced Expiration Volume in one second
should be 75% or higher in healthy adults
FEV1 lower than 75 % indicates what?
airway obstruction, lung diseases or weakness of the respiratory muscles
Diffusion across the thin respiratory membrane moves from a ................. concentration to a ........................ concentration.
From Higher to Lower
In the lungs, ................... expiration diffuses O2 from the alveolar air into the blood.
In the lungs, ................... expiration diffuses CO2 from the blood into the alveolar air..
In tissues _____ _____ diffuses O2 from blood into tissues.
In tissues _____ _____ diffuses CO2 from tissues into the blood.
Diffusion of O2 & CO2 across the respiratory membrane is also called what?
In a mixture of gases, the total prssure is equal to the sum of the pressures cintributed by each individual gas. What us this called?
What does Pg stand for?
The partial pressure of gas = g stands for the specific gas.
What gases make up our atosphere ?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and water plus trace gases
The total pressure of our atmosphere is what ?
PO2 + PCO2 = 760 mmHg
The sum of the partial pressures of gases that make up our atmosphere
PvO2 stands for what ? and is how much?
Partial pressure of deoxygenated VENOUS Blood
PvCO2 stands for what ? and is how much?
partial pressure of CO2 in deoxygenated VENOUS blood
More oxygen in the air, result in more oxygen in the blood, what is this called?
What are the principles of Henry's Law?
The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to :
- Partial pressure of the gas
- Solubily of the gas in liquid
- Tempurature of the liquid (blood)
98.5 % of O2 is carried by what?
Iron in Hemoglobin
What does Hb stand for?
When Hb picks up oxygen in the lungs, it is called what?
When loaded what does Hemoglobin become?
What is Hb-H ?
deoxyhemoglobin or unloaded hemoglobin = when the O2 is delivered
Where is Fe++ affinity greatest?
What does an O2 saturation of 100 % mean ?
each of the 4 Hb is bound with an oxygen
What does PaO2 stand for?
partial pressure of oxygen in oxygenated Arterial blood
It is about 95 mm Hg
What does PaCO2 stand for?
partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in oxygenated arterial blood
It is about 40 mm Hg
What are the factors in loading/unloading of O2 ?
- PO2 = Main factor
Lower PO2 in tissues favors ______________.
In a resting person, nearly _____% of O2 is unloaded from the hemoglobin.
Higher PO2 in lungs favors ___________.
Lower pH in the tissues favors _______ of O2 .
Hb has less affinity for O2 at a ___________ pH.
What is this called?
Lower pH / Bohr Effect
when acidity rises, hemoglobin losses it grip on oxygen.
High pH of lungs alveoli favors _______ of O2.
- low acid, means Hb has a higher affinty for oxygen and loads up.
Higher CO2 in tissues favors ______ .
- CO2 in tissues is dissolved in water, this makes Carbonic Acid. This acidic enviornment which meand the Hb looses it grip on O2.
High temperature in Tissue favors __________ .
Low temperature in the LUNGS favors ________ .
BPG stands for what ?
High BPG favors _____ od O2 in the tissues.
- the BPG causes the hemoglobin to lose it's grip on oxygen and unload it in tissues.
What facotrs increase BPG formation ?
- higher metabolic rate
- high altitude
- certain hormones
What factors favor Unloading of O2 in the tissues?
- Lower PO2
- Lower pH
- Higher Temperature
- Higher BPG
What facotrs favor LOADING of O2 in the lungs?
- Higher pH
- Higher PO2
- Lower Temperature
Fetal Hemoglobin differs from adult Hemoglobin how?
Structure & Higher affinity for binding O2 - which allows it take O2 from the Partially deoxygenated blood from the mother.
The air we breathe is approximatley ____ % oxygen.
When CO2 binds to Hemoglobin it becomes _________.
CO2 binds to hemoglobin _____ times more strongly than oxygen.
210 times more
______ % binds 50% of Hemoglobin.
______ % binds 100% of Hemoglobin.
_____ % of crbon dioxide dissolves in plasma.
_____ % of crbon dioxide becomes Hb-CO2 or ______________.
23 % carbaminohemoglobin
______ % is of carbon dioxide is converted to carbonic acid by this enzyme, _____________.
- Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme
What does H2CO3 stand for?
Bicarbonate is transported in plasm as _______ ________ .
What are the 2 Medullary centers that control resperation?
- Dorsal Respiratory Group
- Ventral Respiratory Group
What are the 2 Pons centers that control resperation?
- Apneustic Center
- Pneumotaxic Center
What does the Dorsal Respiratory Group regulate?
Quite & Forced respiration
What does the Ventral Respiratory Group regulate?
functions only during forced respiration
What does the Aoneustic Center Regulate ?
Prolonged inhalations (yawning)
What does the Pneumataxic Center Regulate ?
Protects against over inflation of the lungs by Inhibiting Prolonged Inhalations
What is Hypercapnia?
- increased CO2
- excites chemoreceptors in carotid arteries, aorta, and medulla oblongata = increases breathing rate.
What is Hypoxia ?
- Decreased O2
- such as at high altitudes, excites chemoreceptors and Increased breathing rate.
What do Proprioceptors affect?
- Increased stimulation of proprioceptors quickly Increases breathing rate.
- Muscle contraction and joint movement increase during exercise.
- Happens as soon as exercise starts.
What is the Hering - Breuer Reflex?
- This stops the lungs before they over inflate.
- the lungs over-inflation activates stretch receptors, which increase nerve impulses to the PONS & MEDULLA while inhibiting the dorsal & apneustic respiratory groups.
What is concious control ?
Labored breathing while lying down flat and is relieved by sitting up.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases include:
- Chrinoc Broncitis
Chronic Broncitis =
Inflamation of the bronchi
Bacterial Infection in lungs
Fluid in lungs
Destruction of lung alveoli