Rnur 131 Pharmacology 1

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dorothy
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111373
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Rnur 131 Pharmacology 1
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2011-10-23 18:27:44
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Rnur 131
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Pharmacology 1
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  1. Pharmacogenomics/Pharmacogenetics
    the sudy of genetically determined variations in the response to drugs
  2. Pharmacology
    study of the biological effects of chemicals
  3. Pharmacodynamics
    • the way a drug affects the body;
    • science dealing with interactions b/w the chemical compounds of living systems and the foreign chemicals, including drugs, that enter living organisms
  4. Pharmacokinetics
    the way a body deals with a drug, including absorption, distribution, biotransformation, excretion
  5. Pharmacokinetics:
    Critical Concentration
    the amount of drug that is needed to cause therapeutic effect
  6. Pharmacokinetics:
    Loading Dose
    higher dose than that usually used, at the start of treatment to reach critical concentration
  7. Pharmacokinetics:
    Absorption
    what happens to a drug from the time it enters the body until it enters the circulating fluid
  8. Pharmacokinetics:
    Routes of administration:
    • IV-fastest absorption
    • IM
    • subQ
    • PO
    • Mucous membrane
  9. Pharmacokinetics:
    Distribution
    involves movement of a drug to the body's tissues
  10. Pharmacokinetics:
    Blood Brain Barrier
    protective system of cellular activity that keeps many things away from the CNS; must be highly lipid soluble to reach the CNS
  11. Pharmacokinetics:
    Placenta & Breast Milk
    benefit must clearly outweigh the risks
  12. Pharmacokinetics:
    Biotransformation
    • Metabolism; the process by which drugs are changed into new, less active chemicals.
    • Everything absorbed in GI tract enters liver to be "treated"; then liver detoxifies many chemicals and uses others to produce needed enzymes and structures.
  13. Pharmacokinetics:
    Excretion
    • removal of a drug from the body
    • drugs that are water soluble are excreted thru kidneys via glomerular filtration
  14. Adverse Reactions:
    1. Primary
    2. Secondary
    3. Hypersensitivity
    • 1. Primary: enhanced desired effect
    • 2. Secondary: side effects
    • 3. Hypersensitivity: excessively responsive to primary or secondary effects
  15. Drug allergies:
    1. Anaphylaxis
    2. Cytotoxic
    3. Serum Sickness
    4. Delayed
    • 1. Anaphylaxis: ab's that can lead to respiratory distress or arrest
    • 2. Cytotoxic: ab's that circulate in the blood and attack antigens on cell sites
    • 3. Serum sickness: ab's that circulate in blood and cause damage to various tissues by depositing in blood vessels
    • 4. Delayed: ab's bound to specific white blood cells
    • gentamicin (Garamycin)
    • neomycin (Mycifradin)
    • steptomycin
    • tobramycin (Tobrex)
    • Ototoxicity
    • Renal toxicity
    • Pregnancy & lactation
    • With aminoglycosides
    • NO alocohol use within 72 hours
    • children (developing cartilage)
    • photosensitivity
    • Lactation due to superinfex in babies
    • With tetracyclines
    • TERATOGENIC
    • pregnancy & lactation
    • renal disease & kidney stones
    • CNS effects
    • rash
    • photosensitivity
    • hepatoxicity
    • turns teeth gray
    • photosensitivity
    • oral contraceptives
    • superinfections
    • NO food or dairy
  16. ceflacor (Ceclor)
  17. ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  18. amoxicillin (Amoxil)
  19. cotrimoxazole (Septra, Bactrim)
  20. tetracycline
    • amantadine (Symmetrel)
    • oseltamavir (Tamiflu)
    • acyclovir (Zovirax)
    • fluconazole (Diflucan)
    • nystatin (Nilstat)
    • clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex)
    • miconazole (Monistat)
    • terinafline (Lamisil)
    • toinaftate (Tinactin)
  21. mebendazole (Vermox)

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