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Psychological State that can be turned on and off. (moralization)
General normative standard of conduct; obligation (should), duty, commandment laws. Principles exist in three ways 1) agreed upon by a whole group 2) grounded in human nature (natural law) 3 Devine commandment theory
Weighing of or choosing amoung valued ends.
a habit to act act ina certian way that society deems noble or good (nobility, civility)
Moral Judgment based on feelings
- 1) Child - Authority Figure (impulse)
- 2) adolesent/peer - what others think and say
- 3) Adult - Society, Self
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development
People will move to a higher stage when the lower stage is inadaquate.
Kohlbergs 6 Stages of moral development
- 1) Punishment and Obediance - the motivation is to avoid pain
- 2) Satisfying ones needs - Egocentric
- 3) Nice Girl/Good Boy orientation- seeks outside approval
- 4) Law and Order - Maintain the rules, do ones duty
- 5) Social Contract - do whats best for society or "the common good"
- 6) Universal Ethical Principle - follow conscience
What is the Criticism of kohlbergs theory?
He only studied boys
Woman base decisions on relationships (3 stages)
what are the 3 stages of Gilligans Theory?
- 1) Ego-Centric - Focuses on "my" needs
- 2) Self-Sacrificing - other centered focuses on "your" needs
- 3) Mature Care Ethics - Balancing "my" needs and "yours"
View point people use to determine thier morals
Concerned with the moral instint of consequence.
Theory that states selfishness is a virtue. Humans ought to act in thier own self interest
Arguments for Ethical Egoism
Altruism - selflessness is demeaning, acting selfishly creates a better world. Helping others creates enabling and dependancy
Critisim of Ethical Egoism
inconsistant with helping profession, parenthood, friendships. It pre-supposes we are strangers
instead of the focus being on the individual it focuses on the groups needs.