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Psychological State that can be turned on and off. (moralization)
General normative standard of conduct; obligation (should), duty, commandment laws. Principles exist in three ways 1) agreed upon by a whole group 2) grounded in human nature (natural law) 3 Devine commandment theory
Weighing of or choosing amoung valued ends.
a habit to act act ina certian way that society deems noble or good (nobility, civility)
Moral Judgment based on feelings
- 1) Child - Authority Figure (impulse)
- 2) adolesent/peer - what others think and say
- 3) Adult - Society, Self
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development
People will move to a higher stage when the lower stage is inadaquate.
Kohlbergs 6 Stages of moral development
- 1) Punishment and Obediance - the motivation is to avoid pain
- 2) Satisfying ones needs - Egocentric
- 3) Nice Girl/Good Boy orientation- seeks outside approval
- 4) Law and Order - Maintain the rules, do ones duty
- 5) Social Contract - do whats best for society or "the common good"
- 6) Universal Ethical Principle - follow conscience
What is the Criticism of kohlbergs theory?
He only studied boys
Woman base decisions on relationships (3 stages)
what are the 3 stages of Gilligans Theory?
- 1) Ego-Centric - Focuses on "my" needs
- 2) Self-Sacrificing - other centered focuses on "your" needs
- 3) Mature Care Ethics - Balancing "my" needs and "yours"
View point people use to determine thier morals
Concerned with the moral instint of consequence.
Theory that states selfishness is a virtue. Humans ought to act in thier own self interest
Arguments for Ethical Egoism
Altruism - selflessness is demeaning, acting selfishly creates a better world. Helping others creates enabling and dependancy
Critisim of Ethical Egoism
inconsistant with helping profession, parenthood, friendships. It pre-supposes we are strangers
instead of the focus being on the individual it focuses on the groups needs.
Basic insights of utilitarianism
The purpose of morality is to make the world a better place. Good consequences is what matters not good intentions. We must do whatever will bring the most benifit to the most people.
Principle of Utility
Always choose action or social policy which would have the best consequences for the everyone. Always act in a way that will produce the greartest good in the world.
Focus is on calculating the best consequence for each act.
Focus is on the rules that bring the greatest good.
Strengths of Utilitarianism
- - morally demanding
- - IMPARTIAL - NO FAVORITES (ON TEST)
Weakness of Utilitarianism
- Requires breaking of principles for the greater good
- - the fallibility of consequential thinking
- -who holds the calculator (who decides if it is worth the consequnce)
woman who's cells were used without her knowledge or consent for the development of an immortal cell line used and sold for research these cells are known as HeLa cells.
Focus is on duty, obligation not consequence.
Moral right or wrong is always relative to a chioce of moral frameworks what is morally right for one framework can be wrong for another. no moral framework is the priviledged framework.
Strengths of Ethical Relativism
- 1) we need to tolerate others
- 2) it values diversity
- 3) it does not pass judgement on cultures
Weaknesses of Ethical Relativism
- self-defensive stance
- not helpful when cultures overlap
Alternative to relativism. actions are either right or wrong regaurdless of other contexts such as consequence or intention
Ethical Pluralism (3 catagories of actions)
- 1) Prohibited Actions - Those that are ethically wrong (absolutism)
- 2) Tolerated Actions - those that would be accepted (relativism)
- 3) Ideal Moral Vision - what utopia would look like