CMI midterm

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  1. Moral Instinct
    Psychological State that can be turned on and off. (moralization)
  2. Principles
    General normative standard of conduct; obligation (should), duty, commandment laws. Principles exist in three ways 1) agreed upon by a whole group 2) grounded in human nature (natural law) 3 Devine commandment theory
  3. Consequences
    Weighing of or choosing amoung valued ends.
  4. Virtue/Character
    a habit to act act ina certian way that society deems noble or good (nobility, civility)
  5. Moral Sentiment
    Moral Judgment based on feelings
  6. Age Cohort
    • 1) Child - Authority Figure (impulse)
    • 2) adolesent/peer - what others think and say
    • 3) Adult - Society, Self
  7. Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development
    People will move to a higher stage when the lower stage is inadaquate.
  8. Kohlbergs 6 Stages of moral development
    • 1) Punishment and Obediance - the motivation is to avoid pain
    • 2) Satisfying ones needs - Egocentric
    • 3) Nice Girl/Good Boy orientation- seeks outside approval
    • 4) Law and Order - Maintain the rules, do ones duty
    • 5) Social Contract - do whats best for society or "the common good"
    • 6) Universal Ethical Principle - follow conscience
  9. What is the Criticism of kohlbergs theory?
    He only studied boys
  10. Gilligans theory
    Woman base decisions on relationships (3 stages)
  11. what are the 3 stages of Gilligans Theory?
    • 1) Ego-Centric - Focuses on "my" needs
    • 2) Self-Sacrificing - other centered focuses on "your" needs
    • 3) Mature Care Ethics - Balancing "my" needs and "yours"
  12. Moral Theory
    View point people use to determine thier morals
  13. Teleoligical Branch
    Concerned with the moral instint of consequence.
  14. Ethical Egoism
    Theory that states selfishness is a virtue. Humans ought to act in thier own self interest
  15. Arguments for Ethical Egoism
    Altruism - selflessness is demeaning, acting selfishly creates a better world. Helping others creates enabling and dependancy
  16. Critisim of Ethical Egoism
    inconsistant with helping profession, parenthood, friendships. It pre-supposes we are strangers
  17. Utilitarianism
    instead of the focus being on the individual it focuses on the groups needs.
  18. Basic insights of utilitarianism
    The purpose of morality is to make the world a better place. Good consequences is what matters not good intentions. We must do whatever will bring the most benifit to the most people.
  19. Principle of Utility
    Always choose action or social policy which would have the best consequences for the everyone. Always act in a way that will produce the greartest good in the world.
  20. Act Utilitarianism
    Focus is on calculating the best consequence for each act.
  21. Rule Utilitarinism
    Focus is on the rules that bring the greatest good.
  22. Strengths of Utilitarianism
    • - morally demanding
  23. Weakness of Utilitarianism
    • Requires breaking of principles for the greater good
    • - the fallibility of consequential thinking
    • -who holds the calculator (who decides if it is worth the consequnce)
  24. Henrietta Lacks
    woman who's cells were used without her knowledge or consent for the development of an immortal cell line used and sold for research these cells are known as HeLa cells.
  25. Deontological Branch
    Focus is on duty, obligation not consequence.
  26. Ethical Relativism
    Moral right or wrong is always relative to a chioce of moral frameworks what is morally right for one framework can be wrong for another. no moral framework is the priviledged framework.
  27. Strengths of Ethical Relativism
    • 1) we need to tolerate others
    • 2) it values diversity
    • 3) it does not pass judgement on cultures
  28. Weaknesses of Ethical Relativism
    • self-defensive stance
    • not helpful when cultures overlap
  29. Ethical Absolutism
    Alternative to relativism. actions are either right or wrong regaurdless of other contexts such as consequence or intention
  30. Ethical Pluralism (3 catagories of actions)
    • 1) Prohibited Actions - Those that are ethically wrong (absolutism)
    • 2) Tolerated Actions - those that would be accepted (relativism)
    • 3) Ideal Moral Vision - what utopia would look like
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CMI midterm
2011-10-23 17:54:08
CMI midterm

Midterm CMI
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