353 Endocrine disorders

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353 Endocrine disorders
2011-10-23 16:36:24
353 Endocrine disorders

353 Endocrine disorders
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  1. What is acromegaly?
    - excess secretion of growth hormone
  2. What is hypopituiatrism?
    -Decrease in one or more of: ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, GH, and prolacitin from anterior pituirtary or posterior pituitary ADH and oxytocin
  3. What is syndrome of inappropraite antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)?
    -Results from an overproducion or oversecretion of ADH. Common cause lung cancer. Need to restore normal fluid volume
  4. What is diabetes insipidus?
    • -Deficiency of production or secretion of ADH or decreased renal response to ADH.
    • -Fluid and electrolyte imbalances
    • -Characterized by polydipsia and polyuria
  5. What are the types of diabetes insipidus?
    • -Central DI (Neurogenic DI): organic lesion in brain that interferes with ADH release or transport
    • -Nephrogenic DI: adequate ADH, but decreased kidney response
    • -Psychogenic DI: excessive water intake caused by lesion or by psychosis
  6. What is a goiter?
    • -Thyroid gland hypertrophy and enlargement caused by excess TSH stimulation
    • -also found in Graves' disease
  7. What are thyroid nodules?
    -Palpable deformity of thyroid gland, benign or malignant
  8. What is thyroiditis?
    • -Infammation of thyroid gland
    • -Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis)
  9. What is hyperthyroidism?
    • -Thyroid glad hyperactivity with sustained increase and release of thyroid hormone
    • -Graves' disease
    • -High circulating levels of T4, T3, or both
  10. What is Graves' disease?
    • -Autoimmune disease marked by diffuse thyroid enlargement and excessive thyroid hormone secretion
    • -Classic finding is exophthalmos
  11. What is thyrotoxic crisis?
    • -AKA thyroid stome, acute, rare condition in which all hyperthyroid manifestations are heightened
    • -Severe tachycardia, shock, hyperthermia, seizures, abdomnial pain, diarrhea, delirium and coma
  12. What is hypothyroidism?
    • -Most common medical disorder, insufficient circulating thyroid hormone
    • -Iodine deficiency is most common
    • -Myxedema
    • -Restore balances with hormone replacement therapy
  13. What is hyperparathyroidism?
    • -Involves increased secretion of PTH
    • -leads to hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia
    • -Weakness, loss of appetite, constipation, emotinal disorders, shortened attention span
    • -Major signs:Osteoporosis, fractures, and kidney stones
  14. What is hypoparathyroidism?
    • -Rare, results from inadequate circulating PTH
    • -Hypocalcemia
    • -Most common cause if iatrogenic
    • -causes tetany, positive chvostek and trousseau sign
  15. What is Cushing syndrome?
    • -Spectrum of clinical abnormalities caued by excessive corticosteroids, mostly glucocorticords
    • -Common cause iatrogenic admin of steroids
    • -Key signs: centripedal obesity, moon facies, purplish red striae, hirsutism in women, hypertension , unexplained hypokalemia
    • -Treatment depends on underlying cause
  16. What is Addison's disease?
    • -All three classes of adrenal corticosteriods are reduced
    • -Etiology is mostly autoimmune
    • -Skin hyperpigmentation
    • -Hormone replacement-hydrocortisone (gluco and mineral), increase (gluco) during times of stress
  17. What is an Addisonian Crisis?
    • -Patients with Addison's disease are at risk for acute adrenal insufficiency, life threatening
    • -Triggered by stress
  18. What is hyperaldosteronism?
    • -Characterized by excessive aldosterone secretion caused by small solitary adrenocortical adenoma
    • -Main effects are sodium retention and potassium and hyrdrogen ion excretion
    • -Key sign: Hypertension
  19. What is pheochyomocytoma?
    • -Rare condition, adrenal medulla tumor that produces excessive catecholamines (E and NE)
    • -May lead to diabetes mellitus, cardiomopathy and death
    • -Manifestations: hypertension with classic triad of severe headache, tachycardia with palpitations and profuse sweating, and unexplained abdominal pain or chest pain
    • -Treatment: remove tumor