353 Endocrine disorders
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What is acromegaly?
- excess secretion of growth hormone
What is hypopituiatrism?
-Decrease in one or more of: ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, GH, and prolacitin from anterior pituirtary or posterior pituitary ADH and oxytocin
What is syndrome of inappropraite antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)?
-Results from an overproducion or oversecretion of ADH. Common cause lung cancer. Need to restore normal fluid volume
What is diabetes insipidus?
- -Deficiency of production or secretion of ADH or decreased renal response to ADH.
- -Fluid and electrolyte imbalances
- -Characterized by polydipsia and polyuria
What are the types of diabetes insipidus?
- -Central DI (Neurogenic DI): organic lesion in brain that interferes with ADH release or transport
- -Nephrogenic DI: adequate ADH, but decreased kidney response
- -Psychogenic DI: excessive water intake caused by lesion or by psychosis
What is a goiter?
- -Thyroid gland hypertrophy and enlargement caused by excess TSH stimulation
- -also found in Graves' disease
What are thyroid nodules?
-Palpable deformity of thyroid gland, benign or malignant
What is thyroiditis?
- -Infammation of thyroid gland
- -Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis)
What is hyperthyroidism?
- -Thyroid glad hyperactivity with sustained increase and release of thyroid hormone
- -Graves' disease
- -High circulating levels of T4, T3, or both
What is Graves' disease?
- -Autoimmune disease marked by diffuse thyroid enlargement and excessive thyroid hormone secretion
- -Classic finding is exophthalmos
What is thyrotoxic crisis?
- -AKA thyroid stome, acute, rare condition in which all hyperthyroid manifestations are heightened
- -Severe tachycardia, shock, hyperthermia, seizures, abdomnial pain, diarrhea, delirium and coma
What is hypothyroidism?
- -Most common medical disorder, insufficient circulating thyroid hormone
- -Iodine deficiency is most common
- -Restore balances with hormone replacement therapy
What is hyperparathyroidism?
- -Involves increased secretion of PTH
- -leads to hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia
- -Weakness, loss of appetite, constipation, emotinal disorders, shortened attention span
- -Major signs:Osteoporosis, fractures, and kidney stones
What is hypoparathyroidism?
- -Rare, results from inadequate circulating PTH
- -Most common cause if iatrogenic
- -causes tetany, positive chvostek and trousseau sign
What is Cushing syndrome?
- -Spectrum of clinical abnormalities caued by excessive corticosteroids, mostly glucocorticords
- -Common cause iatrogenic admin of steroids
- -Key signs: centripedal obesity, moon facies, purplish red striae, hirsutism in women, hypertension , unexplained hypokalemia
- -Treatment depends on underlying cause
What is Addison's disease?
- -All three classes of adrenal corticosteriods are reduced
- -Etiology is mostly autoimmune
- -Skin hyperpigmentation
- -Hormone replacement-hydrocortisone (gluco and mineral), increase (gluco) during times of stress
What is an Addisonian Crisis?
- -Patients with Addison's disease are at risk for acute adrenal insufficiency, life threatening
- -Triggered by stress
What is hyperaldosteronism?
- -Characterized by excessive aldosterone secretion caused by small solitary adrenocortical adenoma
- -Main effects are sodium retention and potassium and hyrdrogen ion excretion
- -Key sign: Hypertension
What is pheochyomocytoma?
- -Rare condition, adrenal medulla tumor that produces excessive catecholamines (E and NE)
- -May lead to diabetes mellitus, cardiomopathy and death
- -Manifestations: hypertension with classic triad of severe headache, tachycardia with palpitations and profuse sweating, and unexplained abdominal pain or chest pain
- -Treatment: remove tumor
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