Biochem Exam3 known questions & MORE

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Biochem Exam3 known questions & MORE
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2011-10-24 13:34:43
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Biochem Exam3 known questions MORE
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Biochem Exam3 known questions & MORE
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  1. a. Aerobic breakdown of glucose by the glycolytic pathway in muscles results in 2 molecules of pyruvate.
    b. Aerobic breakdown of glucose by the glycolytic pathway in RBCs results in 2 molecules of pyruvate.

    a. A = B
    b. A < B
    c. A > B
    A>B
  2. Which one of the following conversions in glycolysis leads to the most direct production of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation?

    a. 3 phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate
    b. glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate to 3 phosphoglycerate
    c. dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glyceraldehydes 3 – phosphate
    d. glucose to fructose 1 , 6 bisphophate
    e. pyruvate to lactate
    B ) glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate to 3 phosphoglycerate
  3. In alcohol fermentation, the decarboxylation of pyruvate requires a coenzyme that contains the vitamin _____
    thiamine.
  4. What is substrate level phosphorylation?

    a. Phosphorylation of AMP by ATP
    b. ATP synthesis when the phosphate donor is a substrate with high phosphoryl transfer potential.
    c. Phosphorylation of glycolytic intermediates
    d. Phosphorylation of ATP coupled to an ion gradient
    e. ATP and AMP synthesis from 2 molecules of ADP
    B) ATP synthesis when the phosphate donor is a substrate with high phosphoryl transfer potential
  5. The synthesis of glucose from pyruvate by gluconeogenesis:
    A. Is inhibited by elevated levels of acetyl coA
    B. involves lactate as an intermediate
    C. Occurs in muscle (no, occurs in liver)
    D. Is stimulated by insulin
    E. requires the participation of biotin
    E. requires the participation of biotin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which one of the followng reactions is unique to gluconeogenesis (not found in glycolysis)?
    A. pyruvate to oxaloacetate
    B. 3-phosphoglyceride to phosphoenolpyruvate
    C. phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate
    D. lactate to pyruvate
    E. glucose 6 phosphate to fructose 6 phosphate
    A. pyruvate to oxaloacetate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following vitamins or coenzymes does NOT participate in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate?
    A. Biotin
    B. Lipoic Acid
    C. Thiamin
    D. Riboflavin
    E. Niacin
    A. Biotin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. What enzyme is responsible for the folowing reaction?
    Pyruvate + CoA + NAD⁺ à acetyl CoA + NADH + H⁺ + CO₂
    A. Lactase Dehydrogenase
    B. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
    C. Pyruvate Synthase
    D. Pyruvate Carboxylase
    E. Acetyl CoA Synthetase
    B. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which one of the following conditions DECREASES the oxidation of acetyl CoA by the TCA cycle?
    A. a low NAD⁺/NADH ratio
    B. a low GTP/GDP ratio
    C. a low NADH concentration due to rapid oxidation to NAD⁺ through the respiratory chain
    D. a high concentration of AMP
    E. a low ATP/ADP ratio
    C. a low NADH concentration due to rapid oxidation to NAD⁺ through the respiratory chain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. A 1-month-old baby showed abnormalities of the nervous system and
    increased lactic acid in the blood. The total amount of pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketogluterate were
    normal, but the total enzyme activity was reduced for both. Which ONE of the following statements concerning this baby is true?
    A. TCA cycle would be accumulatingexcess succinyl coA
    B. The patient appears to have a thiamin deficiency
    C. A diet containing high carbohydrate would be very beneficial
    D. Administering insulin would benefit this baby
    E. Exposing the baby to high oxygen levels would help
    B. The patient appears to have a thiamin deficiency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. This Citric Acid Cycle enzyme is also part of an electron-transport complex _______________
    succinate dehydrogenase.
  12. During oxidative phophorylation, which one of the following reduces O₂ to H₂O?
    A. TCA cycle
    B. cytochrome C oxidase
    C. Q-cytochrome C reductase
    D. glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase
    E. ATPsynthase
    B. cytochrome C oxidase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The enzyme complexes associated with oxidative phosphorylation and the
    electron transport chain can be classified as _____________ proteins.
    A. integral membrane
    B. lipid-anchored membrane
    C. both A and C
    D. peripheral membrane
    E. water soluble
    A. integral membrane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following would exist in the most oxidized state in mitochondria treated with antimycin?
    A. Succinate Q reductase
    B. NAD⁺/NADH₂
    C. Cytochrome oxidase
    D. FAD⁺/FADH₂
    E. NADH-Q reductase
    C. Cytochrome oxidase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the glycerol phosphate shuttle, exists in two isoforms. The cytosolic enzyme uses ________ as coenzyme, whereas the mitochondrial enzyme uses _______ as the coenzyme.
    • NAD⁺/NADH
    • FAD⁺/FADH₂
  16. Phosphorylase b, the inactive enzyme, can be allosterically activated. What physiological conditions renders phosphorylase b back to the inactive state (R to T state)?
    A. high ATP and low calcium ion levels
    B. high ATP high AMP and glucose 6 phosphate levels
    C. high ATP and glucose 6-phosphate levels
    D. high glucose
    e. all of the above
    C. high ATP and glucose 6-phosphate levels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Calcium ion increase in the cytoplasm stimulates muscle contraction and therefore glycogenolysis. Calcium ion binds and leads to the activation of what enzyme in glycogen degradation?
    A. glycogen phosphorylase
    B. Phosphorylase
    C. Phosphorylase kinase
    D. Protein kinase C
    E. Phosphoglucomutase
    C. Phosphorylase kinase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which statement is true abut he reaction catalyzed by glycogen synthase?
    A. It requires a primer of for to eight linked glucose residues.
    B. It polymerizes free glucose to glycogen in the liver.
    C. It adds UDP-glucose to glycogenin through α 1,4 glycosidic linkages
    D.. It requires UTP-glucose for chain lengthening.
    E. It can lengthen glycogen chains as well as form new branches.
    A. It requires a primer of for to eight linked glucose residues.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Glycogen phosphorylase is _________(more, less) active when phosphorylated, and it is __________ (activated, inhibited) by glucose 6-phosphate
    A. more; inhibited
    B. more; activated
    C. less; inhibited
    D. less; activated
    A. more; inhibited
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. dehydrogenase enzymes require _____; _____; ______
    NAD+ ; FAD ; NADP+
  21. decarboxylase enzymes require the coenzyme ______
    thiamin
  22. carboxylase requires the coenzyme ______
    biotin
  23. hexokinase in brain/RBCs have ____ affinity for O2
    high
  24. glucokinase has ____ affinity for O2
    low
  25. pyruvate --(____)--> Acetyl CoA in the presence of oxygen
    pyruvate dehydrogenase
  26. Cori's Cycle AKA ______
    Lactic Acid Cycle
  27. If you need glucose _____ is inhibited, ______ is activated which stimulates the production of ______
    • PFK2 inhibited ; F2,6BPase activated ; glucagon produced
    • GLUCONEOGENESIS
  28. If you have too much glucose _____ is inhibited, ______ is activated which stimulated the production of _________
    F2,6BPase inhibited ; PFK2 activated ; insulin produced
  29. pyruvate --(____)--> oxaloacetate
    pyruvate carboxylase in gluconeogenesis
  30. pyruvate --(___)--> acetaldehyde
    pyruvate decarboxylase in alcoholic fermentation
  31. pyruvate --(___)--> lactate
    lactate dehydrogenase in lactic acid fermentation
  32. lactate dehydrogenase restores _____ for _____
    restores NAD+ for GAP
  33. p-PhosphorylaseA ..R--(__)-->T
    glucose
  34. PhosphorylaseB ..R--(___)-->T
    G6P / ATP
  35. PhosphorylaseB ..T--(___)-->R
    AMP
  36. the enzyme associated with Riboflavin is
    succinate dehydrogenase
  37. the 3 enzymes associated with Niacin are
    • isocitrate dehydrogenase
    • a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
    • malate dehydrogenase
  38. the enzyme associated with Thiamin is
    a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  39. the 2 enzymes associated with Pantothenic acid are
    acetyl CoA and succinyl CoA
  40. the glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle is most prominent in ______
    muscles
  41. the glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle does what?
    transfers cytoplasmic NADH into mitochondria
  42. the malate-aspartate shuttle is most prominent in _____
    the heart / liver
  43. Complex I of the ETC is AKA
    NADH-Q oxidoreductase
  44. Complex II of the ETC is AKA
    succinate-Q reductase
  45. Complex III of the ETC is AKA
    Cytochrome C reductase
  46. Complex IV of the ETC is AKA
    Cytochrome c oxidase
  47. FADH2 enters Complex ___ while NADH enters Complex ____
    • FADH2 = C2
    • NADH = C1

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