EAR 101 Test2

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  1. How many pounds are in a kilogram?
    2.2 pounds
  2. How many centimeters in an inch?
  3. How many liters in a gallon?
  4. How many kilometers in a mile?
  5. What is the idea of continental drift?
    All continents were once a supercontinent but they broke apart into smaller continents that then drifted apart
  6. What is the lithosphere?
    strong rigid layer along the upper mantle
  7. What are the 7 lithospheric plates?
    • 1. North American
    • 2. South American
    • 3. Pacific
    • 4. African
    • 5. Eurasian
    • 6. Australian-Indian
    • 7. Antarctic
  8. What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?
    • 1. Divergent
    • 2. Convergent
    • 3. Transform Fault
  9. What are Divergent Plate Boundaries?
    Two plates move apart
  10. What are Convergent Boundaries?
    Two plates move together
  11. What are Transform Fault Boundaries?
    Two plates grind past each other
  12. What are subduction zones?
    Convergent Boundaries
  13. How thick are plates?
    Anywhere from a few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers
  14. What is a stratovolcano?
    • Large nearly symmetrical structure
    • Mostly located along the ring of fire
    • Gas-Rich Magma, Andesite Compound
    • thick Viscousity, don't travel far
  15. What is a cinder cone?
    • Composed mostly of loose pyroclastic material
    • Steep
    • Produced by single short lived erupotion
    • Usually Small
  16. What are shield volcanoes?
    • Produced by accumulation of fluid basaltic laval
    • domed structure
    • Begin on Ocean Floor, make islands
    • Basalt
  17. Name some shield volcanoes...
    • Hawaiian Islands
    • Canary Islands
  18. What is a hot spot?
    • An area of volcanism
    • high heat flow and crustal uplifting
    • few hundred kilometers
  19. Name 5 Stratovolcanoes...
    • 1. Mount St. Helens
    • 2. Mount Shasta
    • 3. Mount Garibaldi
    • 4. Mount Etna
    • 5. Mount Stromboli
  20. What is pyroclastic material?
    • Ash
    • Bombs
    • Blocks
  21. What is a caldera?
    Large depression with diameters that exceed 1 kilometer and are somewhat circular
  22. How is a caldera formed?
    • 1. The collapse of the summit of a large composite volcano with silica-rich pumice and ash
    • 2. The collapse of a shield volcano
    • 3. The collapse of a large area
  23. Describe Slate
    • Very Fine Grained
    • Excellent Cleavage
    • Low-Grade metamorphism of shale, mudstone, or siltstone
  24. Desrcibe Phyllite
    • Fine Grained
    • Breaks Wavy
    • From Shale, mudstone, or silt
  25. Describe Schist
    • Medium to coarse grain
    • include muscovite/biotite, quartz/feldspar
    • Parent= shale, mudstone, siltstone
  26. Describe Gneiss
    • Medium to Coarse Gain
    • Quartz, feldspar
    • Parent = Shale, granite, volcanic rocks
  27. What is Contact Metamorphism?
    Occurs when rocks immediately surrounding the molten igneous body are baked and change state
  28. What is Regional Metamorphism?
    Large segments of earth's crust are intensely deformed along a convergent plate boundary
  29. What is a Kyanite?
    Silicate Mineral
  30. What rock has the highest grade of metamorphism? the lowest?
    • High = Fault Breccia
    • Low = Slate
  31. What is metamorphic facies?
    implies that the rock was formed in a very simple metamorphic environment
  32. What do greenschist facies consist of?
    • chlorite
    • epidote
    • serpentine
  33. What do blueschiest facies consist of?
    • amphibole (glaucophane)
    • high pressure, low temp
  34. What is eclogite?
    high temp high pressure
  35. What are the 2 types of seismic waves?
    • S-Waves
    • P-Waves
  36. What is an S-Wave?
    • "Shake" particals at right angles
    • Change the shape of the material
    • Slower then P-Waves (arrive 2nd)
  37. What are P-Waves?
    • "Push-Pull" rocks momentarily in direction they are travelling
    • Can travel through all material
    • 1st to arrive!
  38. What is the Focus?
    The origin of the earthquake
  39. What is the epicenter?
    The point at the surface directly above the focus
  40. What is a seismograph? seismogram?
    • A seismograph is the instrument finding the info
    • A seismogram is the information
  41. What is the difference in energy released from magnitude 1 and 2? Height?
    • -energy = 10
    • -height = 30
  42. What is elastic deformation?
    recoverable changes
  43. What is Brittle Deformation?
    Rocks that break into small pieces (don't bend)
  44. What is the largest Earthquake recorded?
    9.5 in South Chile, 1960
  45. What kind of fault is the San Andreas?
    Fault Creep, plates gradually slide past each other
  46. What four factors determin the damage done by earthquakes?
    • 1. The intensity
    • 2. The Duration
    • 3. The material the buildings are made on
    • 4. The material the buildings are made of.
  47. What is an Anticline?
    upfolding/arching of layers
  48. What is a syncline?
  49. At what depth would we find the base of the crust?
    7-70 km
  50. At what depths would we find the base of the lithosphere?
    410 km
  51. At what depths would you find the base of the asthenosphere?
    660 km
  52. At what depth would you find the top of the outer core?
    3000 km
  53. At what depth would you find the top of the inner core?
    5000 km
  54. What is the outer core made of?
    • liquid
    • sulfur, oxygen, silicon, and hydrogen

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EAR 101 Test2
2011-10-26 18:31:58
EAR 101 Test2

EAR 101 Test2
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