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How many pounds are in a kilogram?
How many centimeters in an inch?
How many liters in a gallon?
How many kilometers in a mile?
What is the idea of continental drift?
All continents were once a supercontinent but they broke apart into smaller continents that then drifted apart
What is the lithosphere?
strong rigid layer along the upper mantle
What are the 7 lithospheric plates?
- 1. North American
- 2. South American
- 3. Pacific
- 4. African
- 5. Eurasian
- 6. Australian-Indian
- 7. Antarctic
What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?
- 1. Divergent
- 2. Convergent
- 3. Transform Fault
What are Divergent Plate Boundaries?
Two plates move apart
What are Convergent Boundaries?
Two plates move together
What are Transform Fault Boundaries?
Two plates grind past each other
What are subduction zones?
How thick are plates?
Anywhere from a few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers
What is a stratovolcano?
- Large nearly symmetrical structure
- Mostly located along the ring of fire
- Gas-Rich Magma, Andesite Compound
- thick Viscousity, don't travel far
What is a cinder cone?
- Composed mostly of loose pyroclastic material
- Produced by single short lived erupotion
- Usually Small
What are shield volcanoes?
- Produced by accumulation of fluid basaltic laval
- domed structure
- Begin on Ocean Floor, make islands
Name some shield volcanoes...
- Hawaiian Islands
- Canary Islands
What is a hot spot?
- An area of volcanism
- high heat flow and crustal uplifting
- few hundred kilometers
Name 5 Stratovolcanoes...
- 1. Mount St. Helens
- 2. Mount Shasta
- 3. Mount Garibaldi
- 4. Mount Etna
- 5. Mount Stromboli
What is pyroclastic material?
What is a caldera?
Large depression with diameters that exceed 1 kilometer and are somewhat circular
How is a caldera formed?
- 1. The collapse of the summit of a large composite volcano with silica-rich pumice and ash
- 2. The collapse of a shield volcano
- 3. The collapse of a large area
- Very Fine Grained
- Excellent Cleavage
- Low-Grade metamorphism of shale, mudstone, or siltstone
- Fine Grained
- Breaks Wavy
- From Shale, mudstone, or silt
- Medium to coarse grain
- include muscovite/biotite, quartz/feldspar
- Parent= shale, mudstone, siltstone
- Medium to Coarse Gain
- Quartz, feldspar
- Parent = Shale, granite, volcanic rocks
What is Contact Metamorphism?
Occurs when rocks immediately surrounding the molten igneous body are baked and change state
What is Regional Metamorphism?
Large segments of earth's crust are intensely deformed along a convergent plate boundary
What is a Kyanite?
What rock has the highest grade of metamorphism? the lowest?
- High = Fault Breccia
- Low = Slate
What is metamorphic facies?
implies that the rock was formed in a very simple metamorphic environment
What do greenschist facies consist of?
What do blueschiest facies consist of?
- amphibole (glaucophane)
- high pressure, low temp
What is eclogite?
high temp high pressure
What are the 2 types of seismic waves?
What is an S-Wave?
- "Shake" particals at right angles
- Change the shape of the material
- Slower then P-Waves (arrive 2nd)
What are P-Waves?
- "Push-Pull" rocks momentarily in direction they are travelling
- Can travel through all material
- 1st to arrive!
What is the Focus?
The origin of the earthquake
What is the epicenter?
The point at the surface directly above the focus
What is a seismograph? seismogram?
- A seismograph is the instrument finding the info
- A seismogram is the information
What is the difference in energy released from magnitude 1 and 2? Height?
What is elastic deformation?
What is Brittle Deformation?
Rocks that break into small pieces (don't bend)
What is the largest Earthquake recorded?
9.5 in South Chile, 1960
What kind of fault is the San Andreas?
Fault Creep, plates gradually slide past each other
What four factors determin the damage done by earthquakes?
- 1. The intensity
- 2. The Duration
- 3. The material the buildings are made on
- 4. The material the buildings are made of.
What is an Anticline?
upfolding/arching of layers
What is a syncline?
At what depth would we find the base of the crust?
At what depths would we find the base of the lithosphere?
At what depths would you find the base of the asthenosphere?
At what depth would you find the top of the outer core?
At what depth would you find the top of the inner core?
What is the outer core made of?
- sulfur, oxygen, silicon, and hydrogen