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2011-10-23 20:20:57
Human Anatomy II

Chapter 17
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  1. 3 parts of the cardiovascular system
    • blood
    • heart
    • vessels
  2. how many liters of blood is in a small drop
    4-6 liters
  3. normal range of pH of blood
  4. 2 parts of blood
    • plasma
    • cells
  5. 55% of whole blood
  6. 45% of whole blood
  7. Plasma is ___ % water, ____ % nutrients, waste, hormones, proteins
    • 92
    • 8
  8. Most abundant protein in plasma
  9. Allows water in the blood
  10. Three types of cells
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • platelets
  11. forms red blood cells
    hemopoietic tissue
  12. RBC, WBC, platelets originate from
  13. Technical name for RBC
  14. Normal value for RBC
    4.5-6 million per mm3
  15. percent of whole blood of RBC's
  16. hematocrits are what shape and function?
    • bi-concave
    • transport gas
  17. how long do RBC live
    120 days
  18. pigment protein that gives RBC the red color
  19. globin is made of
    amino acids
  20. oxygen bound
  21. oxygen not bound
  22. CO2 bound
  23. normal value range of hemoglobin
    12-18 g
  24. kidneys detect low oxygen and secrete which hormone?
    erythropoietin (EPO)
  25. EPO's target to produce red blood cells
    red bone marrow
  26. destroys RBC because they contain macrophages
  27. Iron is converted to
  28. bile color comes from
  29. bilirubin in tissues instead of bile
  30. low RBC or low hemoglobin
  31. three types of anemia
    • iron deficiency
    • pernicious
    • sickle cell
  32. type of anemia that results in tired, low energy, and pale; more common in females
    iron deficiency
  33. type of anermia due to lack of vitamine B12 or lack of intrinsic factor
  34. type of anemia that is caused by a genetic mutation caused by a mistake in lining of amino acids which results in blockages
    sickle cell
  35. high RBC
  36. Blood type A contains antigen _____ and antibodies ____
    • antigen = A
    • antibodies = B
  37. Blood type B contains antigen ___ and antibodies ___
    • antigen= B
    • Antibodies = A
  38. Blood type AB has antigen ____ and antibodies ____
    • antigen= A and B
    • Antibodies= n/a
  39. Blood type O contains ____ antigen and ____ antibodies
    • antigen= n/a
    • antibodies= A & B
  40. Two types of Rh antigen
    • positive
    • negative
  41. ___ % of the population is Rh Positive
  42. universal donor
  43. universal receiver
    AB +
  44. technical name for WBC
  45. normal value range for WBC in a drop of blood
    5,000-10,000 mm3
  46. increase in WBC (infection)
  47. decrease in WBC (at risk)
  48. Two categories of WBC
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes
  49. Three types of granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinphils
  50. Neutral stain (lavender); 3 to 6 lobed nucleus
  51. WBC function is to eat small invaders
  52. red stain; 2 lobed nucleus
  53. WBC function is to elevate in allergic reaction or parasitic worms to lessen reaction or take out worms
  54. Base stain (dark purple); large granules with S-shaped nucleus
  55. WBC function is to cause redness (inflammation)
  56. found in basophils and responsible for anti-coagulant (clotting)
  57. found in basophils and responsible for daialated blood vessels
  58. two types of agranulocytes
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  59. 2 subcategories of lymphocytes
    • t-cell
    • b-cell
  60. WBC mostly made of nucleus
  61. recognize foreign antigens and trigger immune response
  62. produce antibodies
  63. Big cell with kidney nucleus that convert to a macrophage
  64. Order of differential
    • Neutrophils 50-70
    • Lymphocytes 25-45
    • Monocytes 3-8
    • Eosinophils 2-4
    • Basophils .5-1
  65. pieces of cells that pinch off into blood
  66. technical term for platelets
  67. convert to platelets
  68. normal range for platelets
    150,000-300,000 mm3
  69. decrease in platelets which leads to bruise and bleeding very easily
  70. control of blood loss
  71. 3 ways of hemostasis
    • platelet plug
    • vascular spasm
    • fibrin
  72. the platelets adhere to collagen fibers at the injured sport and become sticky so more platelets will come
    platelet plug
  73. constrict injured vessel
    vascular spasm
  74. What vitamin for you need to produce prothrombin?
    Vitamin K
  75. Two proteins in plasma
    • prothrombin
    • fibrinogen
  76. Flow of hemostasis
    • Injured vesserl
    • a) platelet plug or b) vascular spasm
    • release prothrombin activator
    • combine with Ca and clotting factors
    • to produce thrombin
    • which activates fibrinogen
    • and turns into fibrin
  77. opposes platelets
  78. keeps from forming thrombin
  79. opposes formation of prothrombin
  80. TPA (tissue plasminogen activator) turns into plasminogen then into plasma which
    digests fibrin
  81. clot in an intact vessel
  82. moving clot
  83. 3 membranes that cover heart
    • fibrous pericardium
    • parietal pericardium
    • visceral pericardium
  84. parietal and visceral pericardium combine to form
    serous membrane
  85. Three layers of heart
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
  86. outer msot layer of heart
  87. thickest, middle part of the heart; muscle
  88. innter most layer of the heart
  89. 4 chambers of the heart
    • 2 upper-atria
    • 2 lower- ventricle
  90. prevent back flow
  91. 4 valves
    • tricuspid valve
    • pulmonary semilunar valve
    • bi cuspid (mitral )
    • aortic semilunar valve
  92. vessels that bring blood flow into the heart
  93. vessels that bring blood flow out of the heart
  94. 3 Vessels in Right atrium
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
    • coronary sinus
  95. drains blood from head and neck
    superior vena cava
  96. drains blood from lower body
    inferior vena cava
  97. drains blood into the heart
    coronary sinus
  98. Right side blood flow
    • Right atrium
    • tricuspid valve
    • right ventricle
    • pulmonary semilunar valve
    • pulmonary trunk
    • pulmonary arteries
    • lungs
    • loosing CO2 and gaining 02
  99. Right side blood flow is
  100. Left side of blood flow is
    oxygenated blood
  101. Left side blood flow
    • Pulmonary arteries
    • Left atrium
    • Bicuspid valve
    • Left ventricle
    • Aortic semilunar valve
    • aorta
    • arteries
    • body
    • dropping off 02
    • picking up co2 and wastes
  102. 1st heart sound
    cuspids closing
  103. 2nd heart sound
    semilunar valve closing
  104. hole in the fetal heart that helps bipass Right atrium into left atrium
    foramen valve
  105. foramen valve closes at or before birth and becomes
    fossa ovalis
  106. function of the right heart
    pulmonary circulation
  107. function of the left heart
    systemic circuit
  108. heart attack where piece of heart died
    myocardial infarction
  109. warning sign that heart muscle is low in O2; and it will turn into myocarial infarction
    angina pectoris
  110. 4 steps of the cardiac conduction
    • SA node
    • AV node
    • Bundle of his (AV bundle)
    • Purkinjie fibers
  111. The "pacemaker" that fires impulses travels thru atria
    SA node
  112. Electrical events of heart measured by
    EKG (electrocardigram)
  113. measures heart beat
  114. In one heart beat what are the waves?
    • P wave
    • QRS complex
    • T wave
  115. atrial depolarization
  116. ventricular depoarization
    QRS complex
  117. ventricular replarization
    T wave
  118. events of heart in one beat
    cardiac cycle
  119. 2 events in a cardiac cycle
    • atrial contraction
    • ventricular contraction
  120. systole
  121. diastole
  122. normal value for resting heart rate
    70-100 bpm
  123. Three Mechanical stages of Cardiac Cycle
    • ventricular filling
    • ventricle systole
    • isovolumetric relaxation
  124. ventricles fill with blood from atria
    ventricular filling
  125. atria drains by gravity ___ %
    squeezes ___ % into ventricles
    • 70
    • 30
  126. during ventricular filling, cuspid valves are _____ and semilunar valves are _____
    • open
    • closed
  127. two steps to ventricle systole
    • isovolumetric contraction
    • ventricular ejection
  128. all valves are shut and ventricles are contracting while pressure is rising
    isovolumetric contraction
  129. semilunar valves are open but the pressure in ventricles have exceeded pressure in trunk

    cuspid are close and semilunar are open
    ventricular ejection
  130. all valves are shut while ventriles are relaxing and atria is filling with blood
    isovolumetric relaxation
  131. the amount of blood put out of the left ventricle in one minute
    cardiac output
  132. formuka for cardiac output
    Stroke Volume x Heart Rate= Cardiac Output
  133. amount of blood put out of the heart in one beat
    stroke volume
  134. 3 things that dertermine amount of blood put out of the heart
    • preload
    • contractility
    • after load
  135. venous retunr; skeletal muscle contraction
  136. force of muscle itself contracting

    Starlings Law

    sympatheric Nervous system
  137. the back pressure exerted by pulmonary trunk and aorta
  138. more stretch of muscle = contract with more force
    starlings law
  139. Three categories of Blood Vessels
    • arteries
    • veins
    • capillaries
  140. function of cardiovascular
  141. 3 arteries/veins layers
    • tunica externa
    • tunica media
    • tunica intima
  142. outside layer that contains collagen and elastin that helps with strength
    tunica externa
  143. middle layer that is made up of smooth muscle in charge of constricting and dialiating
    tunica media
  144. inner layer made up of endothelium smooth lining
    tunica intima
  145. 2 types of arteries
    • elastic artery
    • muscular artery
    • arteriole
  146. artery that is clsoer to the heart
    elastic artery
  147. distribuiting artery
    muscular artery
  148. smaller version of artery
  149. Veins do not have a lot of ______ because they are not under high pressure
  150. veins contain a larger ____
  151. are capable of collapsing
  152. small version of vein
  153. layer for capillaries
    simple squamous epithelial tissue
  154. capillaries tissue layer allow _____ to take place
  155. Artery/vein flow
    artery--> arteriold--> capillary--> venule--> vein
  156. more stretch= more force = increase _____
    stroke volume
  157. ex of a way to bring more blood to heart
    activity (moving, breathing
  158. lose blood = decrease dtroke volume = increase ___
    heart rate
  159. expansion and recoil of the arterial with each heart beat
  160. cannot feel through vein
  161. vein found on side of head by temple
    temporal artery
  162. artery found on the sides of the neck
    common carotid
  163. used for blood pressure and found at the bend of the elbow
    brachial artery
  164. artery used to find babies pulse
  165. artery found on thumb side of hand
    radial artery
  166. artery found by groin
    femoral artery
  167. artery located behind the knee
    popliteal artery
  168. artery on the back of the foot
    dorsalis pedis
  169. test for circulation
    dorsalis pedis artery
  170. use arteries to test for what two things
    • blood pressure
    • pulse
  171. the force that blood hits the vessel wall
    blood pressure
  172. for fat people, which artery would you test?
  173. normal blood pressure fraction:
    120/88 mm Hg
  174. Blood pressure top number
    systolic pressure
  175. blood pressure bottom number
    diastolic pressure
  176. What three things effect blood pressure?
    • blood volume
    • peripheral resistane
    • cardiac output
  177. how much blood you have in the system
    blood volume
  178. two hormones that increase blood volume
    • ADH
    • aldosterone
  179. opposing force offered by vessel wall
    peripheral resistance
  180. 3 effects of peripheral resistance
    • vessel length
    • diameter
    • viscosity
  181. increased vessel length= increased peripheral resistance= ________
    increased blood pressure
  182. decrease diameter= increased peripheral resistance= _____
    increased blood pressure
  183. how thick the blood is
  184. increased viscosity= ___ blood pressure
  185. increased cardiac output = ____ blood pressure
  186. Kidneys detect low blood pressure release hormone renin
    renin- angiotesin mechanism
  187. kidneys detect low BP and release hormone
  188. brings about angiotensinogen
  189. angiotensinogen makes
    angiotensin 2
  190. 3 functions of angiotensin 2
    • vasoconstrict
    • stimulate adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone
    • stimulate post. pituitary to release ADH
  191. produced in atrium and tells kidneys to excrete sodium
    ANH (atrial naturetic hormone)