Psych 345

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Anonymous
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111567
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Psych 345
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2011-10-23 20:24:53
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Pysch
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Psych 345
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  1. Intelligence
    Cognitive process
  2. Cognition
    diversified process whereby individual acquires and applies knowledge
  3. Spearmean's Approach
    • Existance of general factor of intelligence/ central function
    • Set of positive correalations among performance
  4. Thurstone's Approach
    • Proposed existance of not one but three intellectual skills
    • Verbal
    • Mathematical
    • Spatial
  5. Sternberg's Approach
    • Multidimensional structure of intelligence. Three fundamental aspects of intelligence
    • Analytical
    • Creative
    • Practical
  6. Gardner's Approach
    Special kinds of musical, bodily, and personal intelligence
  7. Psychometric Approach
    • Intelligence can receive a numerical value
    • Debates about validity of measures and interpretation of intelligence scores
  8. Cross cultural research shows that intelligence is understood ________ in various cultural context
    Cros cultural research shows that intelligence is understood differently in various cultural context
  9. African Americans score ____% lower on standardized intelligence test
    15%
  10. People develop different cognitive skills and acquire dissimilar ways of thinking and learning that are useful for their environment
  11. Nativist View
    Cognitive phenomena are inborn, biologically programmed
  12. Monozygotic twin IQ correlation _____
    0.9
  13. Correlation of IQ with two biologically unrelated individuals is _______
    0.2
  14. Cross cultural psychologists examine how particular ___________conditions affect human physiology and influences mental conditions
    environmental condition
  15. Human intellectual skills can be influenced by ___________________
    external environmental conditions
  16. _______can increase IQ scores
    Training
  17. Exposure to stereotypesm negative attitudes about testing, and feelings of hopelessness can ______ test scores
    lower
  18. ________ factors can affect even higher cognitive functions such as planning abilities
    Environmental
  19. Intelligence scores are __________correlated with socioeconomic state of individual
    positively
  20. ________________ were more likely to provide a better material environment for a child to develop
    Affulent and educated families
  21. Studies show intelligence scores _________as function of birth order
    Decline
  22. ___________families tend to achieve higher IQ scores than children from __________families
    Smaller/larger
  23. Field Dependent
    learners are more attentive to external references, contexts, and instructions in their learning tasks
  24. Field independent
    learners tend to be autonomous in learning, solving problems, and making decisions
  25. In individulaist culture, more ________than colectivist
    field independent
  26. ____, _____, and ______ affect what we remember
    Cultural, social, and educational experiences
  27. Formal reasoning
    basic cognitive operation based on abstract analysis of given premises and deriving a conclusion from them
  28. Creativity
    originality or the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
  29. Two different cognitive approaches: _________ process and ___________ process
    generative and exploratory
  30. _______ help to coordinate our social behavior, learned routines can limit creative responses
    Routines
  31. Immigrant minorities
    voluntarily in ssearch of better conditions and oppurtunities
  32. Caste minorities
    brought to US through slavery or forced colonization
  33. William James Theory
    emotion is embedded into bodily experience
  34. Cannon and Bard Theory of Emotion
    various life situations simultaneously elicit both emotional experience and bodily responses
  35. Schachter and Singer Theory
    • Two crucial elements in emotional experience
    • emphasized physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation
  36. Darwin's proposition
    if you understand what other people feel by judging emotional expression and if they can judge your emotions correctly, then human feelings are universal
  37. ______ is universally understood sign of happiness
    Smiling
  38. Human emotions vary because _____________
    they are based on different experiences that are related to the culture which they originate
  39. Culture varies in the ______ and _______ of common emotional reactions
    frequency and significance
  40. Men have higher __________ than women
    lethality
  41. Amygdala
    serves as brain's emotional center
  42. Hypothalamus
    activates significance of the stimulus
  43. Right hemisphere
    responsible for facial displays of emotion
  44. Pleasant emotions are associated with activation of the ____________
    left frontal cortex
  45. Unpleasant emotions are mostly associated with activation of ___________
    right frontal cortex
  46. Different emotions produce different_____
    Physiological variables
  47. Cultural norms and rules _______ the evaluations of emotions
    regulate
  48. _________ refer to particular cultural rules about how to feel in particular situations
    Feeling rules
  49. Individualistic cultures are more emotionally concerned with _______
    one's self
  50. The way people evaluate stress can be _________ but also be dependent on individual traits
    culturally determined
  51. Display rules
    rules of emotional expression, which is acquired primarily during socialization

    Different in each culture
  52. Two criteria for assessment of emotional expression
    frequency and intensity
  53. Cultural variations in display of ______
    sadness
  54. Anger
    emotion aroused by one's perception of being interfered with or threatened
  55. _____ was most most common reaction to sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt
    Withdrawl
  56. Motivation
    internal conditions that iniates, activates, or maintains the individual goal-directed behaviors
  57. Drive
    internal aroused condition that directs organism to satisfy some physiological need
  58. Need
    Motivated state caused by physiological or psychological deprivation
  59. Biological need
    Universal needs, directed toward self- preservation
  60. Social need
    establish relationships

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