FDNS Midterm

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FDNS Midterm
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  1. Essential Nutrients
    Required nutrients that the body cannot manufacture or produce in sufficient amounts but that are required in the diet
  2. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
    Dietary intake standards
  3. Six Categories of Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Protein
    • Water
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
  4. Main Function of Carbohydrates
    A source of readily available energy
  5. Most Common Monosaccharides
    • Glucose
    • Galactose
    • Fructose
  6. Most Common Disaccharides
    • Sucrose
    • Maltose
    • Lactose
  7. Complex Carbohydrates
    • Polysaccharides
    • Sucrose, Lactose, & Fiber
  8. Protein in Foods Provides the Body with...
    Amino acids
  9. How are amino acids unlike carbohydrates & fats?
    They contain nitrogen
  10. How many essential amino acids are there?
    9
  11. How many calories per gram are in carbohydrates?
    4
  12. How many calories per gram are in protein?
    4
  13. How many calories per gram are in fat?
    9
  14. How many calories per gram are in alcohol?
    7
  15. What's the recommended intake of carbohydrates?
    45-65% of calories
  16. What's the recommended intake of protein?
    10-35% of calories
  17. What's the recommended intake of fat?
    20-35% of calories
  18. What are particularly good sources of protein?
    • Animal products
    • Dried beans
  19. Lipids Include...
    • Fats
    • Oils
    • Cholesterol & related compounds
  20. Triglycerides Consist of
    • Fatty acids
    • Glycerol
  21. Functions of Fat
    • Precursors of cholesterol & sex hormones
    • Components of cell membranes
    • Vehicles for carrying certain vitamins
    • Suppliers of essential fatty acids
  22. Essential Fatty Acids Include
    Linoleic & Alpha-linoleic acids
  23. Alpha-linoleic acid is the parent of...
    The omega-3 fatty acid family
  24. DHA & EPA
    • Fatty Acids
    • Found in fatty fish & human milk
  25. Regular consumption of fish protects against
    • Irregular heartbeat
    • Sudden death
    • Stroke and high blood pressure
    • Plaque formation in arteries
  26. 2 Basic Types of Lipids (fats)
    • Saturated
    • Unsaturated
  27. Unhealthy Fats Include
    • Trans fats
    • Saturated fats
    • Cholesterol
  28. Water Soluble Vitamins Include
    • B-Complex Vitamins
    • Vitamin C
  29. Fat-Soluble Vitamins Include
    Vitamins A, D, E, & K
  30. Do vitamins provide energy?
    No
  31. Do vitamins serve as structural components of the body?
    No
  32. Vitamins that Serve as Antioxidants
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Beta-carotene
  33. Phytochemicals
    • Fruits, veggies, nuts, seeds, & whole grains
    • Might partially account for lower rates of heart disease & cancer
  34. Minerals
    • Consist of single atoms
    • Carry a charge in solution
    • Unlike any other nutrients
  35. Roles of Water
    • Energy transformations
    • Excretion of waste
    • Temperature regulation
  36. Products made with refined grains must use flours enriched with...
    • Thiamin
    • Riboflavin
    • Niacin
    • Iron
  37. Individual-level nutrition assessment includes...
    • Anthropometric assessment
    • Biochemical assessment
    • Clinical/physical assessment
    • Dietary assessment
  38. What assesments are generally used for individual diets?
    • Multiple 24-hour recalls
    • Dietary history
  39. Anthropometric Assessment Measures...
    • Bone density
    • Height & weight
  40. WIC Program
    • For nutritionally at-risk population
    • Low income pregnant women, postpartum, & breastfeeding women
    • Low-income children under 5 years old
  41. Every dollar invested in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prenatal nutrition services saves ___ on Medicaid costs for infants during the first 2 years of life.
    $3.13
  42. The (new) MyPyramid recommends the following number of servings per day for a 2,000 calorie diet
    • 2 dairy
    • 2 meat/meat substitute
    • 2 fruit
    • 3 vegetables
    • 6 breads/cereals
  43. Choose Foods that Limit the Intake of
    • Saturated Fat
    • Trans Fat
    • Cholesterol
  44. 2005 Dietary Guidelines Include Recommendations for...
    • Physical activity
    • Carbohydrates
    • Sodium & potassium
    • Food groups to encourage
  45. Factors Contributing to Infertility in Females and/or Males
    • Beta-Carotene Intake
    • Caffeine Intake
    • Alcohol Intake
  46. Infertility in Males May be Related to...
    • Low zinc status
    • Alcohol intake
    • Heavy metal exposure
    • Exposure to synthetic estrogens
  47. Folate
    Inadequate amounts very early in pregnancy can cause neural tube defects
  48. It is recommended that women who may become pregnant consume
    • 400 mcg of folic acid
    • No more than 5000 IU of vitamin A
    • Little or no alcoholic beverages
  49. It is commonly recommended that women reduce their intake of ___ to decrease PMS symptoms.
    Caffeine
  50. What supplements appear to decrease symptoms of PMS?
    • Vitamin B6
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
  51. High blood glucose levels during the first two months of pregnancy can cause
    Congenital abnormalities
  52. Glycemic Load (GL)
    A measure of the extent to which blood glucose levels are raised by a specific amount of carbohydrate-containing food.
  53. Characteristics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    • Infertility
    • Obesity or high levels of intra-abdominal fat
    • Excessive body hair
    • High blood levels of insulin, triglycerides, and
    • androgens
  54. Phenylketonuria (PKU) in a pregnant woman often results in an infant with
    Mental retardation
  55. Celiac Disease
    Avoid eating gluten from wheat, rye, & barley
  56. Small improvements in infant mortality in the past few decades in the United States are largely due to
    Technological advances in medical care that save ill newborns
  57. US Ranking on Infant Mortality Rates
    27th
  58. Infants weighing ___ to ___ at birth are least likely to die
    within the first year of life.
    7 lb 12 oz ... 10 lb
  59. Duration of Pregnancy
    40 weeks
  60. To provide the fetus with sufficient energy, nutrients, and oxygen for growth, the mother must first
    Expand plasma volume
  61. How much fetal growth is accomplished in the first half of pregnancy?
    10%
  62. How much fetal growth is accomplished in the second half of pregnancy?
    90%
  63. Physiological changes during pregnancy
    • Suppressed immunity
    • Increased concentrations of blood cholesterol
    • Relaxed gastrointestinal tract muscle tone
  64. Functions of the Placenta
  65. Hormone and enzyme production
    • Nutrient and gas exchange between the mother and
    • fetus
    • Removal of waste products from the fetus
  66. First Organ to Develop in Humans
    Brain
  67. Critical Periods
    Preprogrammed time periods during development when cells, organs, and tissues are formed and functions established.
  68. Can deficits or excesses in nutrients supplied to the fetus during critical periods can produce lifelong defects in organ function?
    Yes
  69. About how long after birth do cells of the central nervous system continue to multiply?
    2 years
  70. "Small for gestational age" (SGA)
    Weight is less than the 10th percentile
  71. What are disproportionatel small infants at greater risk for in the adult years?
    Chronic Disease
  72. About how much of the total weight gained during pregnancy is comprised by the fetus?
    One-third
  73. Increased need for energy in pregnancy averages how many calories per day?
    300
  74. Do artificial sweetners have any association with birth defects?
    No. Therefore, they should not be avoided during pregnancy.
  75. How much alcohol should pregnant women drink daily?
    None
  76. The recommended protein intake for pregnancy is an additional ___ grams per day for females aged 14 and older.
    25
  77. Overall, the incidence of iron deficiency is ___ in vegetarian as compared to non-vegetarian pregnant women.
    The same
  78. Inadequate availability of folate between 21 and 27 days after conception can...
    • Interrupt normal cell differentiation
    • Cause neural tube defects
  79. Approximately what percent of women enter pregnancy with iron deficiency?
    12%
  80. What are normal declines in hemoglobin level during pregnancy generally a result of?
    Dilution effects of increased plasma volume
  81. Which is lower: absorption of iron from multimineral supplments, or absorption from supplements containing only iron?
    Absorption of iron from multimineral supplements
  82. Should sodium intake be restricted during pregnancy to minimize edema?
    No
  83. How many cups of coffee is it safe to drink per day while pregnant?
    Up to 4
  84. Pica
    Compulsion to eat non-food substances
  85. Consequences of Pica
    • Lead poisoning
    • Intestinal obstruction
    • Parasitic infection
  86. Iron
    The only supplement routinely recommended for pregnant women
  87. Should pregnant women avoid exercising until after the baby is born?
    No
  88. Vitamin B6
    Has been shown to reduce the severity of nausea in many women
  89. Hypertensive Disorders
    The second leading cause of maternal mortality in the US
  90. Symptoms of Preeclampsia/Eclampsia
    • Deficits in prostacyclin relative to thromboxane
    • Increased blood pressure
    • Platelet aggregation and blood coagulation
  91. Who is the risk of developing hypertension associated with preeclampsia higher in?
    Women who were born small for gestational age
  92. What supplements during gestation show promise in reducing oxidative damage caused by preeclampsia?
    Vitamin C & Vitamin E
  93. Approximately what percent of pregnant women develop gestational diabetes?
    3-7%
  94. Consequences of Gestational Diabetes
    • Stillbirth
    • Increased risk for preeclampsia
    • Infant macrosomia
  95. Diets for Women with Gestational Diabetes
    • Relatively low in carbohydrates
    • High in fats
  96. Approximately what percent of children with HIV/AIDS are infected during pregnancy or delivery?
    20%
  97. Approximately what percent of children are infected with HIV/AIDS during breastfeeding?
    14-21%
  98. Bulimia Nervosa
    Most commonly observed eating disorder among pregnant women in the US
  99. Risks Associated with Adolescent Pregnancy
    • Low birthweight
    • Iron-deficiency anemia
    • Preeclampsia
    • Perinatal death
  100. Functional Foods
    • Foods which have been changed to make them better for one's diet.
    • Example: Orange juice with added vitamin C (nutrients added)
    • Example: Lactose-free milk (harmful parts removed)
  101. "The Fetus is Not a Parasite"
    • The fetus doesn't take whatever it needs
    • from its mother at its mother's expense. The fetus will
    • sacrifice its own deficiency for the mother.
    • Example: If the mother really needed iron, the baby would not take it from the mother.
  102. "Nutrition Programming" of Genes
    • It's the changes that can occur in a fetus that program what certain genes do. If
    • certain nutrients are exposed to the fetus, the function of genes can
    • actually change, and diseases can be prevented later in the child's
    • life.
  103. Foods that could provide a total of approximately 20-25 grams of protein for a meal for a pregnant woman consuming a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet.
    • 2 tortillas - 6 grams of protein
    • 1 oz. cheese - 7 grams of protein
    • 1/2 cup refried beans - 7 grams of protein
  104. Prolactin
    Plays a specific role in human milk production
  105. Oxytocin
    • Plays a specific role in human milk let down
    • Acts on the uterus, causing it to contract, seal blood vessels, & shrink in size
  106. Colostrum
    • The first milk
    • Contains compounds for immune protection
  107. What's the difference in calorie consumption between infants who are breastfed vs. those who drink formula?
    Those who are breastfed consume fewer calories
  108. Lipids Content in Human Milk
    Lipids provide about half the calories of human milk
  109. Fatty Acid Profile
    Breast milk component that varies with the mother's diet
  110. Lactose
    The dominant carbohydrate in human milk
  111. Early consumption of ___ through breast milk appears to be related to lower ___ later in life.
    Cholesterol / Blood cholesterol
  112. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)
    In breast milk, it's associated w/ developmental advantages (ie- higher IQ scores)
  113. Protein & Breast Milk
    Lower content in breast milk than other types of milk, making it easier for the kidneys to handle
  114. Vitamin B6 & Breast Feeding
    Of the water soluble vitamins, it's the most likely to be deficient in human milk since it reflects maternal intake
  115. Minerals in Human Milk
    Many are highly available for absorption
  116. Breast Feeding & Return of Fertility
    Return of fertility (through monthly ovulation) is often delayed in breastfeeding women
  117. Secretory Immunoglobulin A
    The predominant immunoglobulin in human milk
  118. Breastfeeding may Reduce the Risk of...
    • Celiac disease
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Neuroblastoma
  119. Milk Synthesis
    • Rate of accumulation of milk in the breast
    • Related to infant demand
  120. Infants fed cow's milk before six months of life suffer
    nutritionally significant losses of ___ via intestinal blood loss.
    Iron
  121. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends human-milk feeding exclusively for how many months?
    6
  122. How many times a day is it normal for a newborn to feed?
    10-12
  123. All infants in the US receive a supplement injection of what at birth?
    Vitamin K
  124. When should infants be fed?
    When signs of hunger are displayed
  125. Vitamin D
    Should be given daily to exclusively breastfed infants starting within the first 2 months of life
  126. What percent of their body weight do newborns usually lose in the first week postpartum?
    Up to 7%
  127. How many extra calories per day should lactating women consume in the first six months postpartum?
    500
  128. Modest Protein-Calorie Malnutrition
    Results in reduced volume of milk, but usually does not compromise the composition of the milk
  129. Common Barriers/Obstacles to Breastfeeding
    • Embarrassment
    • Early hospital discharge
    • Lack of broad societal support
    • Commercial promotion of infant formul
  130. How many daily feedings are generally needed for women to continue making milk?
    2
  131. Mastitis
    • A bacterial infection of the breast
    • Most commonly found in breastfeeding women
  132. What's the single most common medical isue health care providers face in managing breastfeeding patients?
    Medication use
  133. Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)
    Not a good reference for info about drugs & breastfeeding
  134. Antineoplastic Agents
    One of only a few medications that is thought to be contraindicated to breastfeeding
  135. Is alcohol considered to be "usually compatible with breastfeeding?"
    Yes
  136. Should women who smoke still breastfeed?
    Yes
  137. Breastfeeding & Caffeine
    It's recommended that women who are breastfeeding consume caffeine in moderation
  138. Is breastfeeding the preferred choice even though environmental contaminants do exist in breastmilk?
    Overwhelmingly, yes.
  139. Protection from ___ is one of the most important benefits of breastfeeding for the infant
    Allergic diseases
  140. Are HIV-infected women in developing countries advised to breastfeed their infants if they do not have access to safe and affordable replacement feeding?
    Yes
  141. How many days can human milk that is freshly expressed into a closed container be stored in the refrigerator?
    3-5 days
  142. 4 Benefits of Breastfeeding for the Mother
    • Delays in the return of fertility through monthly ovulation, creating delays between pregnancies
    • Increased bonding with their baby
    • Lower risk of breast and ovarian cancer
    • Breastfeeding increases production of oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions
  143. 5 Benefits of Breastfeeding for the Infant
    • Meets nutritional needs of the infant without any extra added food or water
    • Provides high amounts of essential fatty acids
    • The amount of protein in human milk meets the baby's needs without harming the kidneys
    • It forms an easily digestible curd
    • DHA helps the central nervous system develop to its full potential
  144. Daily food plan for a pregnant woman consuming
    2,400 calories, as indicted by her MyPyramid food plan.
    • 8 ounces of grains
    • 3 cups vegetables
    • 2 cups fruits
    • 3 cups milk
    • 6.5 ounces meat & beans
    • 7 teaspoons oil
  145. 3 Prental Strategies to Encourage Breastfeeding
    • Provide education to new and expecting mothers.
    • Nurses and doctors in the hospital could encourage
    • it before discharging mother and baby
    • Providing support to the mother after discharge to encourage that she continue breastfeeding
  146. Major Factor in the Prevalence of US Infant Mortality
    Infant birthweight
  147. At birth, which nutrients can the healthy newborn's digestive system is sufficently mature to digest?
    • Fats
    • Proteins
    • Simple sugars
  148. What's the average caloric need of breastfed infants in the first five months of life?
    108 cal per kg of body weight
  149. What is the specific recommended intake level of fats for infants?
    There is none
  150. Should cholesterol intake be limited in infants?
    No.
  151. Short & Medium Chain Fats
    • Found in breast milk
    • More readily utilized than long chain fats
  152. Long Chain Fats
    • Found in some infant formulas
    • Not as readily utilized as short & medium chain fats
  153. Metabolic Rates in Infancy versus Later in Life
    High
  154. Flouride Levels in Breastmilk
    Low
  155. Should salt be added to infants' food to maintain adequate sodium intake?
    No
  156. When is it recommended that screening for lead poisoning start?
    9-12 months
  157. When do healthy newborns double their birthweight?
    4-6 months
  158. When do healthy newborns triple their birthweight?
    1 year
  159. Dietary Fiber Recommendations for Infants
    There are none
  160. The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion infant growth charts show...
    • Weight for age
    • Length for age
    • Head circumference for age
  161. Is the rate of weight gain during infancy predictive of further growth patterns after infancy?
    No
  162. How do you assess an infant's readiness to begin eating from a spoon?
    • Ability to keep head upright and sit with little support
    • Ability to move tongue from side to side without moving head
  163. What's the recommended age for weaning the infant from the breast or bottle to a drinking cup?
    12-24 months
  164. An infant who is weaned from breastfeeding too soon may...
    • Plateau in weight because of a decrease in total calorie intake
    • Become constipated from a decrease in fluid intake
  165. First Food Generally Recommended for Infants
    Baby cereal (iron-fortified)
  166. Many foods eaten by other family members are appropriate foods for infants who are...
    9-12 months
  167. Unsafe Foods for Infants
    • Popcorn
    • Raisins
    • Uncut stringy meats
    • Raw apples
  168. Breast milk or formula generally provides adequate water for healthy infants for how long?
    The first 4-6 months
  169. The American Academy of Pediatrics Juice Recommendations
    • Not introduced into the diet before 6 months of age
    • Never at bedtime
  170. Infants learn food preferences largely based on...
    Their experiences with foods
  171. If an infant's mother is a vegan, the infant may need what supplements?
    Vitamin B12
  172. Which supplement may be needed if the infant is not exposed to adequate sunlight?
    Vitamin D
  173. Failure to Thrive (FTT)
    • A condition in infants
    • A calorie deficit is suspected
  174. Research in infants who have long-term and severe iron-deficiency anemia suggests inadequate iron contributes to...
    Long-term learning delays
  175. The use of a bottle containing formula or juice to calm a baby enough to sleep may set the infant up for...
    Dental caries (cavities)
  176. Hydrolyzed Protein
    Is the ingredient in a specialized formula given to infants with suspected protein intolerance
  177. Preterm Birth
    Infants born before 37 weeks gestation
  178. The overall U.S. infant mortality rate has _____ between 1980 and 2002.
    Decreased 45%
  179. When are extra calories needed for infants?
    • Infections
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Recovery from surgery
  180. Medium-Chain Fatty Acids
    Fats that may be given to infants who are sick or recovering
  181. Body Composition of Preterm Infants
    Not the same as that of term infants, in part because these infants have missed part of the third trimester, when fat is added rapidly.
  182. Developmental Delay
    The interaction of a chronic condition with development
  183. Preterm babies with immature immunological systems are prone to infection, so every effort is made to assure that...
    Their feedings don't become contaminated
  184. What is the recommended source of nutrition for preterm infants?
    Breast milk
  185. Since folic acid has been added as a supplement in grains and flours...
    Rates of spina bifida and related conditions have declined 26%
  186. Maple Syrup Urine Disease
    A genetic condition
  187. Supplements Recommended for Breastfed Babies
    • Fluoride supplements are recommended if the family lives in a place that does not provide fluoridated water
    • Elemental iron (at 3 mg per kg body weight of the infant) may be prescribed if the mother was anemic during pregnancy
    • Vitamin B12 may be prescribed if the mother is a vegan
    • Vitamin D supplements may be needed if the infant is not exposed to adequate amounts of sunlight."
  188. Recommendations for use of Cow's Milk During Infancy
    • Not to be used
    • Iron-deficiency anemia has been linked to early introduction of whole cow's milk.
  189. Modifications in Dietary Protein That may be Needed for
    Infants at Risk Due to Specific Health Conditions
    Forms of protein in which amino acids are in short chains (ie- hydroloyzed proteins), or single amino acids
  190. DiGeorge Syndrome
    • Genetic condition in which the child's 22nd chromosome has a small deletion
    • Can cause many difficulties in the child's heart health, calcium balance, and immune system as well as affect their speech and learning abilities
    • Occurs in one of every 4,000 births.
    • If the child has short stature, heart malformations, heart surgery, and resulting feeding problems, then nutrition intervention may be necessary.
  191. 2004 Poverty Rate for Children Under 6 Years Old
    21%
  192. Toddlers
    Children btw 1-3 y/o
  193. Preschoolers
    Children btw 3-5 y/o
  194. Appetite & Normal Growth in Toddlers
    Decrease in appetite is normal for toddlers
  195. Body mass index is predictive of body fat for children over how many years of age?
    2
  196. BMI in Pediatrics
    Goal is to strive for a BMI-for-age, instead of a specific BMI like you would for adults
  197. For toddlers and preschoolers, a BMI of what indicates risk of being overweight?
    Greater than or equal to the 85th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile
  198. Weaning
    • Sign of independence
    • Usually complete by 12-14 months
  199. At about what age do children have a refined pincer grasp?
    12 months
  200. Snacks & Toddlers
    Snacks are vital in meeting the child's nutritional needs
  201. Children & Self-Regulation
    • Children can self-regulate
    • BUT that doesn't meant they will consume a well-balanced diet
  202. Recommendations for Feeding Toddlers
    • Serve child-size portions
    • Serve simple, unmixed foods
    • Avoid strongly flavored foods\
    • Don't allow the child to eat & drink indiscriminately btw meals & snacks
  203. How many exposures might it take before a child accepts a new food?
    8 to 10
  204. Restriction & Desirability of Food (Young Children)
    Restricting access to a certain food might increase desirability
  205. Protein & Children's Diets
    Adequate in both the usual American diet, as well as vegetarian diet
  206. Coercive Practices & Getting a Child to Eat
    Shouldn't be used (ie- "clean your plate, children are starving in Africa")
  207. Iron Deficiency
    • Common in children
    • Especially ages 9-18 months
    • Most common in Mexican American children
  208. Milk & Children Ages 1-5
    No more than 24 ounces a day b/c of low iron content
  209. What's a primary cause of dental decay?
    Habitual use of a bottle with milk or fruit juice at bedtime or throughout the day.
  210. What do diets adequate in iron & calcium seem to protect against?
    High blood lead levels
  211. In 1998, how may people lived in households where at least some members experienced hunger due to lack of food?
    • 10 million people
    • More than 1/3 were children
  212. High Blood Lead Levels
    Approx. 2.2% of children ages 1-5 have them
  213. Overweight Children Ages 2-5
    • BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile
    • 13.9% of children ages 3-5
  214. Treatment of Obesity Ages 2-7 (w/ no Secondary Complications of Obesity)
    Maintain weight while gaining height
  215. #1 Cause of Death in the US Today
    Heart disease
  216. Children who have high LDL-cholesterol should restrict saturated fat to less than what percent of calories per day?
    7%
  217. Children who have high LDL-cholesterol should restrict dietary cholesterol to less than what amoung of mg per day?
    200 mg
  218. Good, Non-Meat Sources of Iron
    • Dried peas & beans
    • Fortified breakfast cereals
  219. How soon can low-fat dairy products be used?
    After 2 years of age
  220. What is the estimated percentage of children ages 2-8 who consume less than their DRI for calcium?
    21%
  221. Approximately what percent of children ages 2-5 years old consume soft drinks?
    50%
  222. What supplement should children on vegan diets receive or eat food supplemented with?
    Vitamin B12
  223. Children in part-day childcare programs (4-7 hours daily) should receive food that provides at least how much of their daily calorie & nutrient needs?
    Two thirds
  224. Children w/ Developmental Delays-- Feeding Behaviors
    May have feeding behaviors that are younger than their current chronological age
  225. Dietary Recommendations for Autism
    The same as for any other child of the same age who has feeding problems.
  226. Which health problem results in more emergency room visits for children under 5 years of age as compared to older children?
    Asthma
  227. Preterm Babies in Toddlerhood
    More likely as toddlers to have breathing problems than other toddlers
  228. Food Allergies
    Estimated to be present in 2-8% of children
  229. What Improves the Intellectual Functioning of a Child with Down Syndrome?
    Nothing
  230. What are some food allergies that may result in anaphylaxis for some children is
    • Milk
    • Eggs
    • Wheat
    • Peanuts
  231. 5 Practical Applications of Child Feeding Research
    • Serve child-size portions
    • Serve food in an attractive way
    • Don't allow children to eat & drink indiscriminately between meals & snacks
    • Don't serve strongly flavored vegetables
    • Don't force the child to stay at the table until they have finished "x" amount of food
  232. Guidelines Recommended for Vegetarian Diets of Young Children
    • Allow the child to eat several times a day
    • Avoid serving the child bran and an excessive amount of bulky foods
    • Include in the diet some sources of energy-dense foods
    • Include enough fat (at least 30% of total calories) and a source of omega-3 fatty acids; Include sources of Vitamin B12,Vitamin D, and calcium in the diet, or supplement if required
  233. Source of Vitamin B12
    Fortified breakfast cereal
  234. Source of Vitamin D
    Fortified soy milk
  235. Source of Zinc
    Nuts
  236. Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    Canola oil
  237. Source of Calcium
    Broccoli
  238. Potential problem of excessive fluid intake in toddlers and preschoolers with chronic conditions. What are the recommendations, and what are the risks if recommendations are not followed?
    • Toddlers & preschoolers w/ chronic conditions are more likely to excessively consume fluids b/c it's often easier for their families to get these children to drink to try to get them to grow.
    • The recommended juice intake for all children ages 1-6 is 4 to 6 fluid ounces.
    • If these recommendations are not followed, gastrointestinal problems may be created, or children might have a smaller stature and lower bone density. For those children who have chronic conditions, the impact of consuming excessive fluids could be even greater.
  239. Meal Plan for a Preschooler with Celiac Disease
    • Breakfast: Soy milk, Grapefruit, Oats (as long as they are not contaminated w/ gluten from wheat mixed in)
    • Snack: Banana, Orange Juice
    • Lunch: Chicken (w/ no wheat flour for thickening, if processed), Green beans, Apple
    • Snack: Raw carrots
    • Dinner: Fish, Corn, english pea

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