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  1. Sexual abuse =
    10-15% of cps cases
  2. Sexual abuse definitional issues:
    • Anny sexual activity with a xhild where consent is not/cannot be given.
    • penetration, touching, exposure, voyeurism
    • May involve force or threat of force
    • Any sexual contact between adult and child/any sexual contact between older and younger child.
  3. Age of consent
    14-18 years
  4. Characteristics of abuse
    • more than 1/3 of cases involve family member as perp. (only 10-30% are strangers)
    • Multiple episodes of abuse are common
    • penetration occurs in 1/4-1/2 ofcases
  5. Characteristics of abuse
    • More than 1/3 of cases involve familymember as perp. (only 10-30% are strangers)
    • Multiple episodes are common
  6. Penetration occurs;
    1/4-1/2 of cases
  7. Families with abuse victim are less;
    Cohesive, more disorganized, and more dysfunctional
  8. Characteristics of victims
    • Girls are at higher risk for abuse than boys
    • Mean age of victim is 9 years old
    • Equal rates of abuse among nigs and whites
    • No SES differences
    • Children with vulnerabilities/disabilities are at greater risk
  9. Characteristics of offenders
    • most likely males (boys more likely to be abused by women)
    • Typically, offenders gradually sexualize relationship (concealment, mutual persuasion, coercion
    • Incestuous fathers
  10. Incestuous fathers-
    • poor parental relationships
    • Familial psychopathology
    • Personality disturbances
    • Sexual deviance
  11. Disclosure
    • Typically, neither revealed or immediately reported (fewer than half tell)
    • Reports are often unintentional
    • Most often tell mother
    • Child Sexual Abuse Accomodation syndrome
  12. Percentage of true allegations that are recanted
  13. Identification of sexual abuse
    • medical signs (often none present)
    • Sexual signs - age appropriate knowledge/behaviors
    • Behavioral/Emotional signs
  14. Behavioral/Emotional Signs;
    • hypervigilance
    • Sleep/appetite changes
    • Somatic complaints
    • Regression
    • Aggression
    • School problems
    • Psychological symptoms
    • Change in behavior/personality
  15. Effects of abuse
    • PTSD and depression are common
    • Behavioral problems -hypersexuality, sexual dysfunction, self harm, substance abuse
    • Interpersonal consequences -social competance, trust, attachment
    • Cognitive functioning/distortions -guilt/shame/self blame, repressed memories
  16. Male vs. female victims
    Homosexuality and masculinity issues
  17. Sexual abuse has ___% decline over time
  18. Meta-analysis
    a statistical technique that allows researchers to combine the results of several different studies
  19. Beck anxiety Inventory
    a 21-item scale designed to measure anxiety and to descriminate between anxiety and depression
  20. Infantile amnesia
    the inability of adults to remember much, if anything, about the first 3 years of life
  21. Self-Efficacy
    a persons belief that he or she is capable of doing what is necessary to produce the desired result in a given situation
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Sexual abuse
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