The Wars of Religion

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  1. Background of the Religious Wars (1559-1648)
    • Hapsburg-Valois Wars (1519-1559) settled by Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559)
    • marriage of Elizabeth Valois (Henry II's daughter) and Phillip II of Spain (Charles V's son)
    • these wars=more political motivation than religious (France and H.R.E=Catholic)
    • Battle of Pavia: battle of Italian Wars involving Hapsburg and Valois French troops
    • France prevented H.R.E from dominating Germany; unintentionally helped spread of Lutheranism
  2. Religious Wars Begin
    • Wars fought mostly over relgious issues from 1560-1648
    • Spain continues its Inquisition policy; stops Protestants in Western Europe and Muslims in Mediterranean
    • French Catholics try to stop Huguenots
    • H.R.E tries to impose Catholicism in German city-states (Spain is involved)
    • Calvinist Netherlands tries to break free from Hapsburg (Catholic) control (Spain is involved)
    • English civil wars b/w Puritans and Anglicans
  3. French Civil Wars
    • Henry II dies in 1559; Catherine de' Medici (Catherine Valois) controls her sons as they rule France
    • main goal=maintain family monarchy
    • 2nd goal=keep France Catholic against 50% of Calvinist nobles
    • open warfare b/w Catholics and Huguenots breaks out (1562)
    • Catholics led by Guise (Henry Guise); Huguenots led by Bourbon and Montmorency-Chantillon families (Calvinists)
    • Peace of Saint-Germain: tried to reconcile Catholics and Huguenots; marriage of Margaret of Valois (Catherine's daughter) to Henry of Navarre (Protestant Huguenot)
  4. Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572)
    • French King, Charles IX commissions assassination of top Huguenots days after his sister's wedding
    • feared for his life; his friend/mentor, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny (Montmorency-Chantillion family) killed
    • Mob of Catholics go on killing spree after Charles' order
    • 20,000 Huguenots killed in 3 days
    • Massacre initiates War of Three Henrys: civil wars b/w Bourbons (Henry of Navarre), Valois (Henry III), and Guise (Henry Guise) family; Bourbons didn't trust Valois b/c of Peace of Saint-Germain
    • Charles IX succeeded by his brother, Henry III
    • Huguenots declare themselves independent from the crown
    • King Henry III negotiates peace where Huguenots can practice freely outside of Paris
    • Navarre accepts; Guise does not; forms Catholic League to drive Protestants out of France
    • Guise's army fores Henry III to flee Paris (1558); Henry III has Guise assassinated
    • Henry III stabbed to death by angry Catholic monk at Palace of Saint-Cloud (1589)
    • Navarre becomes Henry IV
  5. Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) 1553-1610
    • first Bourbon king
    • rise to power ended French Civil Wars
    • places France on the path to absolutism
    • politique (like Elizabeth-most successful monarch)
    • converted to Catholicism to gain support of Paris; privately remained Calvinist
  6. Edict of Nantes (1598)
    • Henry IV grants degree of toleration to Huguenots
    • permits Calvinist Huguenots to worship privately
    • Huguenots not allowed to worship in Paris
    • gave Huguenots access to universities, public office positions, right to fortify towns
    • Edict=truce and not recognition of religious tolerance
    • grants Huguenots more protection than any other religious minority throughout Europe
    • second marriage to Marie de' Medici; marriage to Margaret Valois is annulled
    • Henry Navarre murdered by Francois Ravaillac
  7. Spain's Crusade
    • Philip II (like his father, Charles V) seeks to re-impose Catholicism throughout Europe; the "Most Catholic King"
    • Spain enters its Golden Age under his reign; builds the Escorial (new royal palace); continues inquisition policy
  8. Baroque Style
    • artistic era from 1600-1750
    • characterized by dramatic and theatrical sculptures and paintings
    • associated with religious tensions within Western Christianity
    • used by Catholics to regain support for Catholicism (not in Protestant churches; art=distraction)
    • Gian Lorenzo Bernini: Saint Peter's Baldacchino (1623-1634); Truth (thorn in foot-England); The Ecstasy of St. Teresa (1647-1652)
    • Caravagio: Rest on the Flight to Egypt; Calling of St. Matthew; Judith Beheading Holofernes
    • Peter Paul Rubens: artist in Belgium Deposition (1612-1614)
    • Rembrandt: artist in the Netherlands; the Blinding of Sampson; Abraham & Isaac (1634); Night Watch (1642)
  9. Dutch Revolt in the Netherlands/ Revolt of the 17 Provinces (80 Years' War/ Dutch War of Independence) 1568-1648
    • resentment of foreign rule and anger over high industry and trade taxes leads to discontent and rebellion in the Netherlands
    • Margaret of Parma and Cardinal Granvelle ruled Netherlands; imposed Inquisition; start of religious issues
    • Philip II of Spain tries to crush the rise of Protestantism (namely Calvinism)
    • William I (William of Orange/William the Silent; Northern Stadtholder; orders people to destroy Catholic churches; 1533-1584) leads the Union of Utrectht against the Spanish Inquisition, the Duke of Alba (Fernando Alvarez), and 10,000 Spanish Imperial troops
    • William is defeated; Alba rules most of the Netherlands with his "Council of Blood" (Regin of the Duke of Alba/ Philip's reaction to rebellion) as William continues to lead small rebellions until he is assassinated in 1580 (aka the Pacification of Ghent)
    • Pacification of Ghent: brief union b/w Spanish Netherlands' Catholic territories and Spanish Netherlands' Protestant territories to expel mutinous Spanish troops (not paid)
    • United Provinces of the Netherlands forms in 1581 to continue the fight against Spain
    • Northern states receive aid from Elizabeth I (hates Council of Blood; scared of Spanish troops invading England)
    • United Provinces declare the Oath of Abjuration; independence from Philip II
    • South remains Catholic; Spanish Netherlands; 10 Southern provinces=modern day Belgium; Amsterdam becomes major commercial center as Philip closes the Scheldt Rier and ruins the commercial city of Antwerp; Dutch Republic signs 12-year truce w/ Spain (marking 1st successful bourgeois-upper middle class- revolution in history); Council of Blood is restored after William the Silent is assassinated
  10. Spain wages war against the Turks in the Mediterranean
    • Battle of Lepanto (1571): Spain defeats Turks and ends Ottoman threat in the Mediterranean
    • Spain becomes dominant on Mediterranean
  11. Reasons why Philip II hated Elizabeth I
    • Elizabeth settlement: Act of Supremacy and Act of Uniformity; tried to settle disputes of religion; example of politique
    • Helped Dutch revolution
    • Refused Philip II's marriage proposal
    • Kills Catholic Mary Queen of Scots
  12. Spain vs. England
    • Mary Tudor (1st wife of Philip II) tried to re-impose Catholicism in England; failed and Elizabeth reversed her course with the Elizabethan Settlement
    • Elizabeth helps the Protestant Netherlands gain independence from Spain
    • Philip sought revenge for England's support for the Dutch/ hoped to make England Catholic again; also upset about the execution of Mary Queen of Scots (1587); planned an invasion of England in 1588
  13. Spanish Armada
    • Spain's planned invasion=disaster
    • supported by Pope Sixtus V
    • terrible storm/small but efficient English navy defeats the Spanish fleet (1/3 of navy is gone)
    • begins England's naval dominance and world power status
  14. Price Revolution
    • combination of inflation and higher population
    • glut of precious metal from the Americas is spent on Spain's military establishment; quickens inflation throughout Europe
    • Spaniards left w/o sufficient bullion (precious metals)
    • to pay debts; caused Spaninsh goods to become too overpriced to compete in international markets
    • Higher population + Inflation = Less food and Fewer Jobs
  15. Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
    • Background: Failure of the Peace of Augsburg (signed in 1555); truce lasts 60 years
    • Germany is still half Protestant and half Catholic; several autonomous city states have their own militaries, taxes, and currency
    • Frederic IV Elector of Palatine becomes Calvinist and aligns with England, the Netherlands, and France against Spain (1609); creates Protestant Union (military union of Protestant German city states); Maximilian (Duke of Bavaria) forms a Catholic League in response
    • France (Catholic), England (Anglican), Sweden (Protestant), Saxony (Protestant), Palatine (Protestant), Ottoman Turks VS. Habsburg (Catholic), Spain (Catholic), Bavaria (Catholic), Austria (Catholic), Hungary (Catholic) and the Catholic League
  16. The Bohemian Phase
    • Calvinists are upset by the new HRE, Ferdinand II; he places restrictions on Protestants
    • Defenestration of Prague: 2 HRE officials are thrown out of a window (1618)
    • Ferdinand II annihilates Calvinist nobility in Bohemia and extends control into Palatinate
  17. The Danish Phase
    • Danish=Denmark
    • Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634) is hired by Ferdinand to combat Protestant armies; intimidated anyone that wasn't Catholic; mercenary
    • Edict of Restitution: Ferdinand II declares al Church lands that had converted to some form of Protestantism be restored to Roman Catholic (HRE is now all Catholic); accomplishes what Charles V wasn't able to do
  18. The Swedish Phase
    • Protestants fight to get back territory lost in Danish Phase
    • Gustavus Adolphus (Lutheran King of Sweden) leads his army to push Catholic forces back to Bohemia; Ferdinand II loses N. Protestant lands
    • Battle of Breitenfeld (1631): ends Habsburg hopes of reuniting Germany under Catholicism
    • Battle of Lutzen (1632)
    • Peace of Prague (1635): HRE, in response to battles, reluctantly annuls the Edict of Restitution in N. German states
    • Spanish Golden Age ended early 17th century; caused their own destruction
    • French Golden Age begins soon afterwards
  19. French Phase (International Phase)
    • Cardinal Richelieu: Chief Minister of France under King Louis XIII defeats Huguenot resistance; punishes nobles who plot against the king; replaces his enemies within the government (1624-1642)
    • Reason of State: government/ruler's needs take priority; reason why Richelieu puts politics before religion
    • aligns France with Protestant forces in Germany to defeat the HRE (same thing happened during Habsburg-Valois wars)
    • HRE signs the Treaty of Westphalia (1648); ends Catholic reformation in Germany; renews the Peace of Augsburg (recognizes Calvinists); HRE begins ts dissolution (more city states formed) Netherlands and Switzerland become independent nations (along w/ over 300 other city states); Edict of Restitution is removed; France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (future Prussia) absorb some of these territories; Habsburg Dynasty is weakened
    • France and Spain are still at war after the Treaty is signed
    • Treaty of Pyrenees (1659): France gets parts of Spanish Netherlands and parts of N. Spain; Spain cannot do anything because their power is weaker than Spain's; Spanish king Philip IV agrees to marry his daughter to Louis XIII's son
  20. Louis XIII
    • son of Henry Navarre and Marie de' Medici
    • Cardinal Richelieu makes all of the decisions for Louis
    • Red Eminence (Richelieu) and the Grey Eminence (Francois Leclerc du Tremblay)
  21. Results of the Thirty Years' War
    • Ends the religious wars in German territories
    • HRE is physically devastated (in terms of population-1/3 dies) and further divided; Habsburgs suffer a further decrease in their power
    • Frane begins position as the dominant European power; accelerated the continued rise of England and the Netherlands
Card Set
The Wars of Religion
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