Developemental Psyc test #2 ch 1

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  1. science of human developement
    science which seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time
  2. scientific method
    a way to answer questions that requires empiracle research and data-based conclusions
  3. replication
    repetition of a study, using different participants
  4. nature
    traits, capacities, and limitations each individual inherits from his/her parents at conception
  5. nurture
    environmental influences that affect development after conception
  6. critical period
    time when a particular type of developmental growth must happen
  7. sensitive period
    time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen, although it mays till happen later with more difficulty
  8. difference-equals-deficit error
    mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is inferior to standard behavior and characteristics
  9. life-span perspective
    approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life
  10. cohort
    group defined by the shared age of its members, who, because they were born around the same time, move through life together
  11. socioeconomic status (SES)
    a persons position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence, aka social class
  12. ethnic group
    people whose ancestors were born in the same region and often share a language, culture, and religion
  13. social construction
    idea based on shared perceptions, not objective reality: childhood, adolescence, senior citzen
  14. epigenetic
    the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual's or a species' genetic inheritance
  15. mirror neurons
    cells in an observer's brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way as if the observer had performed the action
  16. developmental theory
    group of ideas that interpret and illuminate observations made about human growth; provides framework for explaining patterns and problems of developement
  17. psychoanalytic theory
    theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
  18. behaviorism
    theory of human developement that studies observable behavior, aka learning theory
  19. conditioning
    process by which responses become linked to particukar stimuli and learning takes place, repeating practice
  20. classical conditioning
    learning process which a meaningful stimulus gradually connects to a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before the learning process began (salivating dog experiment)
  21. operant conditioning
    learning process which a particular action is followed by something desired or something unwanted, which determines wether the action will be repeated, aka insturmental conditoning
  22. reinforcement
    technique for conditioning behaviorin which that behavior is followed by something desired
  23. social learning theory
    emphasizes the influence that other people have over a persons behavior; every person learns through observation and imitation of other people
  24. cognitive theory
    focuses on changes in how people think over time; our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
  25. ecological-systems approach
    view that the person should be considered in all contexts and interactions that constitute a life (later became bioecological theory)
  26. dynamic-systems theory
    view that ongoing , ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his/her environment, includin family and society
  27. scientific observation
    method of testing by unobtrusively watching and recording participants' behavior in a systematic and objective manner
  28. experiment
    method which the researcher tries to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between two variables
  29. independent variable
    the manipulated variable
  30. dependent variable
    the observed variable
  31. survey
    research method which info is collected from a large number of people
  32. cross-sectional research
    design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other characteristics
  33. longitudinal research
    design which the same individuals are fallowed over time and their developement is repeatedly assessed
  34. cross-sequential research
    hybrid design which researchers study several groups of people of different ages (cross-sectional) and follow these groups over the years (longitudinal)
  35. correlation
    number that indicated the degree of relationship between two variables , expressed in terms of teh likelihood that one variable will/will not occure when the other does/ does not
  36. quantitative research
    research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers such as ranks or scales
  37. qualitative research
    research that considers quality instead of quantity; descriptions and expressed ideas
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Developemental Psyc test #2 ch 1
Chapter 1 definitions
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