H.A. Exam 4 Vocab

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H.A. Exam 4 Vocab
2011-10-23 22:45:48


Health Assessment Exam 4 (Chp 13-17) - Skin, Hair and Nails; Head and Neck Lymphatics; Eyes; Ears; Nose, Sinuses, Mouth, and Throat
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  1. ABCDE of Melanoma detection
    Asymmetry; Border irregularity, Color, Diameter of more than 6 mm; Evolution of lesion over time.
  2. Apocrine Glands
  3. Glands in the axillae and genital area that open into hair follicles and become activated at puberty. They secrete a thick, milky sweat into hair follicles that, once mixed with bacterial skin flora, produce a characteristic musky odor.
  4. Brawny skin
    skin that is dark and leathery
  5. Bulla
    fluid-filled lesion greater than 1 cm in circumference
  6. Cafe-au-lait macules
    flat pigmented skin lesions
  7. Clubbing of the nails
    finding in the nails that indicated chronic hypoxia.
  8. Crust
    dried secretions from a primary skin lesion
  9. Cyanosis
    gray or blue skin color, indicating lack of oxygen.
  10. Dermis
    the second layer of the skin, which acts to support the epidermis. Also supports nutritional needs.
  11. Dysplastic nevus
    an atypical mole
  12. Ecchymosis
    bruise or bruising
  13. Eccrine glands
    Glands that cover most of the body, with the exception of the nail beds, lip margins, glans penis, and labia minora. They are most numerous on the palms and soles, open directly on the skin surface, and secrete a weak saline solution (sweat) in response to environmental or psychological stimuli.
  14. Epidermis
    outermost layer of the skin; 1st line of defense
  15. Erosion
    loss of the epidermis, usually not extending into the dermis or subcutaneous layer.
  16. Erythema
  17. Excoriation
    lesion resulting from scratching or excessive rubbing of the skin or a discrete lesion.
  18. Fissure
    linear break in the skin surface, not related to trauma.
  19. Flushing
    turning red, as with fever
  20. Jaundice
    yellowish discoloration of the skin and conjunctive caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the body.
  21. Keloid
    excessive fibrous tissue replacement, resulting in an enlarged scar and deficiency.
  22. Lanugo
    fine hair that may cover the newborn
  23. Lichenification
    accentuation of normal skin lines resembling tree bark, commonly caused by excessive scratching.
  24. Linea nigra
    a dark line that appears on the pregnant women, usually disappears after childbirth, and extends from umbilicus to pubis.
  25. Macule
    flat, distinct, colored area of skin that is less than 10 mm in diameter and does not include a change in skin texture or thickness.
  26. Malar rash
    red macular lesions distributed over the forehead, cheeks, and chin, resembling the pattern of a butterfly
  27. Melanoma
    the most serious type of skin cancer, which develops in cells that produce melanin.
  28. Melasma
    a blotchy discoloration on the face of pregnant women, also called the “mask of pregnancy.”
  29. Nails
    epidermal appendages that arise from a nail matrix in the epidermis, near the distal portions of each finger and toe
  30. Nodule
    solid palpable lesion greater than 1 cm in diameter, often with some depth.
  31. Pallor
    paleness of the skin
  32. Papule
    raised, defined lesion of any color, less than 1 cm in diameter.
  33. Photoallergy
    reaction to the sun, often caused by a medication, that manifests with blisters and redness on exposed skin and occurs only after repeated exposure to offending substance. It persists for some time after removal of the offending substance, UV exposure, or both.
  34. Photosensitivity
    rash that appears after exposure to the sun.
  35. Phototoxicity
    reaction caused by a drugs molecules absorbing energy from a particular UV wavelength and then damaging surrounding tissues. The result is marked and severly tender sunburn.
  36. Plaque
    raised, defined lesion of any color, greater than 1 cm in diameter.
  37. Pressure ulcer
    loss of skin surface, extending into dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscle, bone, or all of these.
  38. Primary lesions
  39. reddened lesions that arise from previously normal skin and include maculae, papules, nodules, tumors, polyps, wheals, blisters, cysts, pustules, and abscesses. May be further described as nonelevated, elevated solid, or fluid-filled.
  40. Pruritis
  41. Purpura
    red or purple skin discolorations that do not blanch when pressure is applied. They are caused by bleeding underneath the skin. Purpura measure 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
  42. Pustule
    purulent fluid-filled raised lesion of any size
  43. Scale
    rapid turnover of epidermal layer, resulting in accumulation and delayed shedding of outermost epidermis
  44. Scar
    fibrous replacement of lost skin structure
  45. Sebaceous glands
    Glands located throughout the body, except the palms and soles, that open into hair follicles and secrete sebum (oil-like substance that assists the skin in moisture retention and friction protection.)
  46. Secondary lesions
    skin changes that appear following a primary lesion (e.g.: formation of scar tissue, crust from dried burn vesicles.)
  47. Self-skin examination
    an examination of the skin that the patient himself or herself performs to identify potentially problematic lesions
  48. Subcutaneous layer
    innermost skin layer; provides insulation, storage of calorie reserves, and cushioning against external forces. Composed mainly of fat and loose connective tissue, it also contributes to the skins mobility
  49. Sunblocks
    substances applied to the skin to deflect rays from absorption.
  50. Sunscreens
    substances applied to the skin to absorb harmful UV rays. They need to be applied every 2 hours for max protection
  51. Tenting
    a persistent pinch
  52. Terminal hair
  53. 1. darker and coarser hair than vellus hair. It varies in length and is generally on the scalp, brows, and eyelids. In post pubertal people, terminal hair is found on the axillae, perineum, and legs; on post pubertal males, it also appears on the chest and abdomen.
  54. Turgor
    skins ability to change shape and return to normal elasticity. Used to assess the status of fluid loss or dehydration in the body
  55. Anterior triangle
    area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and midline of the neck.
  56. Cranium
    The collective bones of the head. The term skull is used synonymously.
  57. Fontanels
    Membrane-covered spaces between the bones of the cranium in the infant.
  58. Graves' disease
    Severe hyperthyroidism
  59. Lymph nodes
    small oval structures throughout the body that filter bacteria and viruses and help to fight infection. They normally range in size from very tiny (less than 1 mm) to more than 1 cm. Lymph nodes of the head and neck region are some of the most accessible to physical examination.
  60. Macrocephaly
    Enlargement of the head, usually from obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
  61. Mandible
    lower jaw
  62. Maxilla
    upper jaw
  63. Microcephaly
    smaller than normal head size, noted at birth and associated with underdevelopment of the brain and mental retardation.
  64. Nasolabial folds
    slight prominence of tissue between the nose and lips; should be symmetrical upon inspection.
  65. Posterior triangle
    area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius muscles.
  66. Salivary glands
    three pairs of glands that secrete saliva into the mouth: parotid, sublingual, and submandibular.
  67. Sternocleidomastoid muscle
    large muscle attached to the sternum and clavicle inferiorly and mastoid process of the temporal bone superiorly. This muscle separates the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
  68. Sutures
    flat joints between the bones of the skull. In the infant, these sutures are not calcified, allowing for skull bone and brain growth
  69. Trapezius muscle
    large muscle of the upper back and posterior neck connected to the occipital bone superiorly and spinous processes of the thoracic and seventh cervical vertebrae inferiorly and the shoulder.