Health Assessment Exam 4 (Chp 13-17) - Skin, Hair and Nails; Head and Neck Lymphatics; Eyes; Ears; Nose, Sinuses, Mouth, and Throat
ABCDE of Melanoma detection
Asymmetry; Border irregularity, Color, Diameter of more than 6 mm; Evolution of lesion over time.
Glands in the axillae and genital area that open into hair follicles and become activated at puberty. They secrete a thick, milky sweat into hair follicles that, once mixed with bacterial skin flora, produce a characteristic musky odor.
skin that is dark and leathery
fluid-filled lesion greater than 1 cm in circumference
flat pigmented skin lesions
Clubbing of the nails
finding in the nails that indicated chronic hypoxia.
dried secretions from a primary skin lesion
gray or blue skin color, indicating lack of oxygen.
the second layer of the skin, which acts to support the epidermis. Also supports nutritional needs.
an atypical mole
bruise or bruising
Glands that cover most of the body, with the exception of the nail beds, lip margins, glans penis, and labia minora. They are most numerous on the palms and soles, open directly on the skin surface, and secrete a weak saline solution (sweat) in response to environmental or psychological stimuli.
outermost layer of the skin; 1st line of defense
loss of the epidermis, usually not extending into the dermis or subcutaneous layer.
lesion resulting from scratching or excessive rubbing of the skin or a discrete lesion.
linear break in the skin surface, not related to trauma.
turning red, as with fever
yellowish discoloration of the skin and conjunctive caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the body.
excessive fibrous tissue replacement, resulting in an enlarged scar and deficiency.
fine hair that may cover the newborn
accentuation of normal skin lines resembling tree bark, commonly caused by excessive scratching.
a dark line that appears on the pregnant women, usually disappears after childbirth, and extends from umbilicus to pubis.
flat, distinct, colored area of skin that is less than 10 mm in diameter and does not include a change in skin texture or thickness.
red macular lesions distributed over the forehead, cheeks, and chin, resembling the pattern of a butterfly
the most serious type of skin cancer, which develops in cells that produce melanin.
a blotchy discoloration on the face of pregnant women, also called the “mask of pregnancy.”
epidermal appendages that arise from a nail matrix in the epidermis, near the distal portions of each finger and toe
solid palpable lesion greater than 1 cm in diameter, often with some depth.
paleness of the skin
raised, defined lesion of any color, less than 1 cm in diameter.
reaction to the sun, often caused by a medication, that manifests with blisters and redness on exposed skin and occurs only after repeated exposure to offending substance. It persists for some time after removal of the offending substance, UV exposure, or both.
rash that appears after exposure to the sun.
reaction caused by a drugs molecules absorbing energy from a particular UV wavelength and then damaging surrounding tissues. The result is marked and severly tender sunburn.
raised, defined lesion of any color, greater than 1 cm in diameter.
loss of skin surface, extending into dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscle, bone, or all of these.
reddened lesions that arise from previously normal skin and include maculae, papules, nodules, tumors, polyps, wheals, blisters, cysts, pustules, and abscesses. May be further described as nonelevated, elevated solid, or fluid-filled.
red or purple skin discolorations that do not blanch when pressure is applied. They are caused by bleeding underneath the skin. Purpura measure 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
purulent fluid-filled raised lesion of any size
rapid turnover of epidermal layer, resulting in accumulation and delayed shedding of outermost epidermis
fibrous replacement of lost skin structure
Glands located throughout the body, except the palms and soles, that open into hair follicles and secrete sebum (oil-like substance that assists the skin in moisture retention and friction protection.)
skin changes that appear following a primary lesion (e.g.: formation of scar tissue, crust from dried burn vesicles.)
an examination of the skin that the patient himself or herself performs to identify potentially problematic lesions
innermost skin layer; provides insulation, storage of calorie reserves, and cushioning against external forces. Composed mainly of fat and loose connective tissue, it also contributes to the skins mobility
substances applied to the skin to deflect rays from absorption.
substances applied to the skin to absorb harmful UV rays. They need to be applied every 2 hours for max protection
a persistent pinch
1. darker and coarser hair than vellus hair. It varies in length and is generally on the scalp, brows, and eyelids. In post pubertal people, terminal hair is found on the axillae, perineum, and legs; on post pubertal males, it also appears on the chest and abdomen.
skins ability to change shape and return to normal elasticity. Used to assess the status of fluid loss or dehydration in the body
area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and midline of the neck.
The collective bones of the head. The term skull is used synonymously.
Membrane-covered spaces between the bones of the cranium in the infant.
small oval structures throughout the body that filter bacteria and viruses and help to fight infection. They normally range in size from very tiny (less than 1 mm) to more than 1 cm. Lymph nodes of the head and neck region are some of the most accessible to physical examination.
Enlargement of the head, usually from obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
smaller than normal head size, noted at birth and associated with underdevelopment of the brain and mental retardation.
slight prominence of tissue between the nose and lips; should be symmetrical upon inspection.
area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius muscles.
three pairs of glands that secrete saliva into the mouth: parotid, sublingual, and submandibular.
large muscle attached to the sternum and clavicle inferiorly and mastoid process of the temporal bone superiorly. This muscle separates the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
flat joints between the bones of the skull. In the infant, these sutures are not calcified, allowing for skull bone and brain growth
large muscle of the upper back and posterior neck connected to the occipital bone superiorly and spinous processes of the thoracic and seventh cervical vertebrae inferiorly and the shoulder.