Mel

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mel
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111645
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Mel
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2011-10-28 08:42:44
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Biology
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Biology-Test 4
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  1. Carolus Linnaeaus
    • Contribution to biology was the two-part Latin names genus and species
    • Binomial system of nomenclature
    • Linnaeus named more than 4000 plants and animals, and biologist since Linnaeaus have used his system to name some 1.4 million more species
  2. Charles Darwin thought…
    • 1. That the world is ever changing and very old
    • 2. That species are made up of individuals
    • 3. That species change
    • 4. That all organisms are related
  3. On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection by Charles Darwin stated that….
    • 1.That the Earth was extraordinary old
    • 2.That one species could change into another
    • 3.That humans and apes were related
  4. Amniotic Fluid
    Geneticists usually obtain the fetal chromosomes by taking a simple of fetal cells
  5. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
    • Uses cells present in the placenta-the tissue that carries nutrients and oxygen from the mother’s blood to the embryo and wastes from the embryo back to the mother
    • CVS may be done 6 to 12 after conception
  6. Polygenetic
    Traits are influenced by more than one gene
  7. Pleiotropy
    The capacity of one gene to have diverse effects
  8. Race
    Members of the same species with slight mutations
  9. Transgenic Organisms
    • Organisms that carry recombinant DNA in their genomes
    • Foreign gene incorporated
  10. Recombinant DNA
    Any DNA molecule consisting of 2 or more DNA segments that are no found together in nature
  11. Biotechnology
    The use of living organisms for practical purposes

    Biotechnology first arose 10,000 years ago when humans began selecting and breeding useful plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms.
  12. Linnaecus named organisms by ________and ________
    Genius and species established binomial system of nomenclature
  13. The hereditary disorder _________ results in the production of abnormal red blood cells.
    Sickle cell anemia
  14. The study of genetics _________
    Deals with heredity and variation
  15. According to Lamarck, species change by inheritance of _____
    Acquired traits
  16. Which of the following is part of Darwin’s ideas?
    • All organisms are related
    • Species evolve gradually, through steady accumulation of changes
    • Life involves a struggle for survival
    • All of these are Darwin’s ideas
  17. During electrophoresis the shortest DNA fragment move ________ relative to larger fragments
    Faster
  18. Which of the following is not one of the four things the human genome project is designed to accomplish?
    Provide information to health insurers that will enable them to adjust their premium charges
  19. Which of the following hereditary conditions is based on a single dominant allele?
    Huntington's disease
  20. Geneticists obtain fetal chromosomes by taking a sample of fetal cells from the ______
    Amniotic Fluid
  21. Carolus Linnaeus contributed to the basis of modern evolutionary theory by ______
    Classifying organisms into a hierarchy of groups by similarities
  22. Who rejected catastrophism, replacing it with uniformitarianism?
    Charles Lyell
  23. Thomas Malthus contributed which of the following insights that led to Darwin's and Wallace's theory?
    Organisms tend to have more offspring than can survive on local resources
  24. Age of Paleozoic
    The age of fish and ancient life
  25. Proterzoic
    • Primitive aquatic plants-algae, fungi
    • Produces oxygen
    • Form ozone layer
  26. Mesozoic
    Age of Reptiles
  27. Cenozoic
    Age of Mammals
  28. Javmaias sineneis
    Mammal the size of a shoe found in Acient China
  29. Poikilothirmic
    Cold-blooded: vaired in body-temperature
  30. One can map out how environment by now the animals and plants changed
  31. Carolus Linnaeus contributed to the basis of modern evolutionary theory by
    classifying organisms into a heirarchy of groups by similarities
  32. Who rejected Catastrophism, replacing it with uniformitarianism?
    Charles Lyell
  33. Thomas Malthus contributed which of the following insights that led to Charles Darwin's and Wallaces theory?
    Organisms tend to have more offspring than can survive on local resources
  34. The Mesozoic Age is often called the age of _______
    reptiles
  35. The wing of a bat is _____ to the wing of an insect and _____ to the flipper of a whale
    Analogous Homologous
  36. Changes in the frequencies of alleles of genes in a population are called _______
    Microevolution
  37. All mutations
    Result from changes in the DNA
  38. In order for a variant to be important in natural selection it must, by definition,
    • change the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce
    • have a genetic basis
  39. A population that maintains a stable distribution of genotype frequencies from generations to generation is said to be
    in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  40. Even the most lethal recessive alleles can persist indefinitely in the population because
    they can be masked in the heterozygote condition
  41. Change in gene frequency that is not due to selection, mutation, or immigration is called________
    random drift or genetic drift
  42. For members of two different populations to be part of the same species they must
    be able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
  43. George Cuvier's hypothesis of "catastrophism" implied that
    there must have been a series of differnt creation of life after each catastrophe
  44. The inheritance of acquired characterisitics was first proposed by ________ as a mechanism to produce evolution
    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  45. The side toe or slpint, of horse and the pelvic bones of a snake are examples of ________ structures
    Vestigial
  46. A volcano erupts on an island, killing off 99% of the members of a lizard species. Ten years later, scienctist survey the island and find the lizards have multiplied to former numbers, but the gene frequencies in the population have changed significantly. This is most likely due to _______
    A difference in the gene frequencies of the few survivors from the orginal population
  47. During the 1880s the pepper moth experinced a change in the frequency of the gene producing coloration shifting to darker forms in the polluted industrial areas. The change in gene frequency was the result of _______
    decreased survival by light moths in blackened areas
  48. Accoring to Darwin, artifical selection differs from natural selection in that artifical selection
    is directed by a human agent
  49. Lamark proposed a theory of evolution that differed from Darwin primarily in that Lamark believed that
    evolution was driven primarily by the needs of individual organisms
  50. The Coenozoic age is often called the age of ________
    Mammals
  51. Consider a population of lizards with a normal distribution for weight. If both heavy and light lizards have a lower survival and reproductive success than do medium sized lizards the population would experince ____ selection
    stabilizing
  52. Which of the following are Darwin's ideas?
    • All orgainsms are related
    • Species evolve gradually, through steady accumulation of changes
    • Life involves a struggle for survival
  53. Which of the following is listed in correct taxonomic order?
    • Species
    • Genus
    • Family
    • Order
    • Class
  54. According to Lamark species change by inheritance of
    Acquired traits
  55. The study of genetics
    deals with heredity and variation
  56. The hereditary disorder_______ results in the production of abnormal red blood cells
    Sickle cell anemia
  57. Linnaeus named organisms by ______ and _______
    • Genus and species
    • Established binomial system of nomenclature

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