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  1. How old must members of the House be?
  2. How many years must the members of the House be an American citizen?
    Seven years
  3. How old must Senators be?
  4. How long must a Senator be an American citizen?
    Nine years
  5. What must all members of Congress reside in?
    The state from which they were elected.
  6. What can members of Congress engage in?
    Substantive representation
  7. What is substantive representation?
    Representing the interests of groups.
  8. What is descriptive representation?
    Representing constituents by mirroring their personal, politically relevant characteristics.
  9. Those already holding office in Congress. In congressional elections, these people usually win. Who are they?
  10. What three primary activities do members of Congress engage in to increase the probability of their reelection?
    • 1. Advertising
    • 2. Credit claiming
    • 3. Position taking
  11. What always makes friends and never makes enemies in Congress?
    Servicing the constituency.
  12. Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals, particularly by cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have a right to get.
  13. Federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district.
    Pork barrel
  14. Who usually wins in the contest for open seats?
    The candidate who spends the most.
  15. In a close election, what can turn victory into defeat?
    Negative publicity.
  16. A legislature divided into two houses. The U.S. Congress and all state legislatures except Nebraska's are this.
    Bicameral legislature
  17. The committee in the House of Representatives that reviews most bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House. Now appointed by the Speaker of the House (responsive to House leadership).
    House Rules Committee
  18. A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation use their right to unlimited debate to prevent the Senate from ever voting on a bill. Sixty members present and voting can halt this.
  19. A proposed law, drafted in legal language. Anyone can draft this, but only a member of the House of Representatives or the Senate can formally submit this for consideration.
  20. When sixty members present votes can halt a fillibuster by voting for this on debate. (Senators are reluctant to do this).
  21. An office mandated by the Constitution. This person is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
    Speaker of the House
  22. Today, what does the Speaker do?
    • 1. Presides over the House when it is in session.
    • 2. Plays a major role in making committee assignments, which are coveted by all members to ensure their electoral advantage.
    • 3. Appoints or plays a key role in appointing the party's legislative leaders and the party leadership staff.
    • 4. Exercises substantial control over which bills get assigned to which committees.
  23. The principal partisan ally of the Speaker of the House, or the party's manager in the Senate. This person is responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments, and rounding up votes in behalf of the party's legislative positions.
    Majority leader
  24. Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party.
  25. The principal leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate.
    Minority leader
  26. What do committees control?
    The congressional agenda and guide legislation.
  27. Seperate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas.
    Standing committee
  28. Congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses.
    Joint committees
  29. Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints member from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a single bill.
    Conference committees
  30. Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigation.
    Select committees
  31. Congress's monitoring of the bureacracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings.
    Legislative oversight
  32. What three goals to members seek to achieve by joining a committee?
    • 1. Reelection
    • 2. Influence in Congress
    • 3. The opportunity to make policy in areas they think are important.
  33. The most important influencers of the congressional agenda. They play dominant roles in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committee bills when thay are brought before the House.
    Committee chairs
  34. A strategy for picking committee chairs, in effect until the 1970s. The member who had served on the committee the longest and whose party controlled the chamber became chair, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence.
    Seniority system
  35. Seniority for selecting chairs, especially in the Senate, but here are plenty of exceptions.
    General rule
  36. A group of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic. Many are composed of members from both parties and from both houses.
    Caucus (congressional)
  37. What is another name for caucses?
    Interest groups within Congress.
  38. Responds to more than 250,000 congressional requests for information and provides members with nonpartisan studies, it is administered by the Library of Congress and composed of erudite researchers.
    Congressional Reseach Service (CRS)
  39. More than 3,200 employees, helps Congress perform its oversight functions by reviewing the activities of the executive branch to see if it is following the congressional intent of laws and by investigating the efficiency and effectiveness of policy implementation.
    Government Accountability Office (GAO)
  40. Focuses on analyzing the president's budget and making economic projections about the performance of the economy, the costs of proposed policies, and the economic effects of taxing and spending alternatives.
    Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
  41. What happens to bills?
    Rules are piled on rules and procedures on procedures.
  42. When party leaders negotiate commitees themselves, bypass them, or negotiate among themselves instead of creating conference committees to revise a bill.
    Unorthodox lawmaking
  43. Addresses numerous and perhaps unrelated subjects, issues, and programs to create winning coalitions, forcing members to support the entire bill to obtain the individual parts.
    Omnibus legislation
  44. Why is it often more difficult to pass legislation in the Senate?
    Because individual senators have retained substanital opportunities for influence rather than the House where the party leader dominates.
  45. Sometimes used as another phrase for the president.
    Chief legislator
  46. What is a presidents' task with Congress?
    Persuade them that their angenda should be Congress' agenda, and they have a good chance that Congress will at least give their proposals a hearing.
  47. What is an effective president?
    A facilitator, who works at the top of coalition building to recognize and exploit opporunities presented by a favorable configuration of political forces, but also exercies their veto to stop legislation they oppose.
  48. Democrates =
    Government action; liberal
  49. Republicans =
    Cuts or no government action; conservatives
  50. Concept of legislators as using their best judgment to make policy in the interests of people.
  51. Concept of representatives mirroring the preferences of their constituencies.
    Instructed delegates
  52. What are members of Congress?
    Politicos, adopting both trustee and instructed delegate roles as they strive to be both representatives and policymakers.
  53. What can lobbyists provide legislators with?
    • 1. Crucial policy information
    • 2. Political intelligence
    • 3. Assurance of financial aid in the next campaign
  54. What is Congress predominantly composed of?
    Wealthier, educated, white, older males.
  55. What three things are crucial to providing policy expertise and constituency service to Congress?
    • 1. Personal
    • 2. Committee
    • 3. Agency staff
  56. What may influence vote outcomes of Congressmen?
    Threat of opposition of lobbyists.
  57. When is Congress most responsive to the public?
    When they make their wishes clear.
  58. Being open to influence can reduce Congress' ability to do what?
    Make good public policy.
  59. Describe contrasting view of members of Congress.
    Some support expanding government to aid constituents (policymaking), while many also fight to limit scop of government.
  60. What is the salary of Senators?
  61. What are the term limits of Senators?
    There are none!
  62. How are Senators sheltered from public opinion?
    They have "elite wisdom".
  63. Who were Senators originally voted in by?
    State legislatures. (Changed by 7th amendment in 1913)
  64. How long are Senators terms?
    • 6 years; staggered so it is a "continuous body" where only 1/3 are up for re-election every 2 years. (Class I
    • Class II
    • Class III)
  65. How may Senators expel members?
    By 2/3 vote.
  66. How many times have members been expelled from the Senate?
  67. Who are vacancies filled by in the Senate?
    Governors (Obama controversy!)
  68. What is the salary of the President Pro Tempore?
  69. Who is the President Pro Tempore?
    The most senior member of majority party = custom.
  70. What are the unique powers of the Senate?
    • 1. Approve presidential appointments = SC/Cabinet/Federal Judges/Ambassadors.
    • 2. Ratify all treaties
    • 3. Ratifies all impeachment proceedings
    • 4. Elects the VP if there is a tie (1837 = Richard Johnson)
  71. What are the other benefits of Congress?
    • 1. Franking privelege (sending mail without paying for postage)
    • 2. Pension
    • 3. Perks!!
  72. What is the salary of the House of Representatives?
  73. What is the salary of the Speaker of the House?
  74. One rep =
    693,000 people!!
  75. Why is the House of Representatives the "People's House"?
    Public opinion is fresh/emotional.
  76. What was the House of Representatives when popular votes mattered?
    The only original part of governement.
  77. How long are the House of Representatives terms?
    Two years (435 districts/6 non-voting delegates).
  78. How must members of the House expel other members?
    By 2/3 vote.
  79. How many times have a member of the House of Representatives gotten expelled?
  80. Who are vacancies in the House filled by?
    "Special elections".
  81. Who is the Speaker of the House?
    Elected leader of majority party = custom.
  82. What are the unique powers of the House of Representatives?
    • 1. Draw up articles of impeachment.
    • 2. Limitate spending bills ($).
    • 3. Choose president in a ties (1801 Adams, 1805 J.A. Adams)
    • 4. Strict rules of debate.
  83. What is NOT a reason for the current underrepresentation of women in Congress?
    Women are less likely than men to win races they enter.
  84. What is true of incumbents in Congress?
    • 1. Most decide to run for reelection.
    • 2. Most win reelection with more than 60 percent of the vote.
    • 3. Most have more campaign contributions to spend than their opponents.
    • 4. Most have higher levels of name recognition than their opponents.
  85. What is most likely to hurt an incumbent legislator's chances for reelection?
    The incumbent has gone trhough a scandalous and public divorce.
  86. True of false: The vast majority of people are more likely to vote based on party identification than on the candidate's personal characteristics and/or policy platform.
  87. The filibuster may be considered undemocratic because...?
    It is used by the minority to defeat the majority.
  88. When the House and Senate pass different versions of a bill, thses versions are to be reconciled by a...?
    Conference committee.
  89. True of false: Congressional committee oversight has declined as federal policy responsibilities have increased over time.
  90. How do staff members keep track of public policy?
    • 1. By reading the voluminous reports that Congress requires of the executive.
    • 2. By receiving information from numerous sources-agencies, complaining citizens, members of Congress and their personal staff, state and local officials, interest groups, and porfessional organizations.
  91. What best describes the president's influence over congressional decision making?
    Presidential influence in Congress occurs at the margins.
  92. True of false: Only a member of the House or Senate can officially propose a bill.
  93. Under what circumstances are legislators more likely to respond to constituency opinion and when are they less likely to do so?
    The stronger constituency preferences are on issues and the weaker partisan ideology is, the more likely members are to deviate from their own positions and adopt those of constituences.
  94. What is the main argument in favor of the idea that Congress is a representative institution?
    Critics charge that Congress is too representative-so representative that it is incapable of taking decisive action to deal with difficult problems. (EX. agricultural committee buisly tend to the interests of famers).
  95. What is the main argument against the idea that Congress is a representative institution?
    Defenders of Congress point out that, thanks to its being decentralized, there is no oligarchy in control to prevent the legislature from taking comprehensive action.
Card Set
Chapter 12: Congress
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