MUSC 136 Exam 2

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  1. Liturgy
    the set order of religious services and the structure of each service, within a particular denomination
  2. Polyphony
    the set order of religious services and the structure of each service, within a particular denomination
  3. Notre Dame school
    • The group of composers working at or near the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris from about 1160 to 1250
    • motets
  4. Ars Nova
    the set order of religious services and the structure of each service, within a particular denomination
  5. A capella
    Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment
  6. Monody
    Vocal style established in the Baroque, with a solo singer and instrumental accompaniment
  7. Basso Continuo
    Italian for "continuous bass"; also refers to performance group with a bass, chordal instrument, and one bass melody instrument
  8. Ground Bass
    A repeating melody, usually in the bass, throughout a vocal or instrumental composition
  9. Modulation
    the process of changing from one key to another
  10. Ritornello
    short, recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
  11. Counterpoint
    the art of combining in a single texture two or more melodic lines
  12. Fugue
    Polyphonic form popular in the Baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint
  13. Castrato
    Male singer who was castrated during boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register, prominent in 17th and 18th century opera
  14. The Age of Enlightenment
    • 18th century
    • contrast between rational, scientific knowledge and expressive, emotional reactions
  15. Sturm und Drang
    "Storm and stress"; late eighteenth-century movement in Germany toward more emotional expression in the arts
  16. The Patronage System
    sponsorship of an artist or a musician, historically by a member of the wealthy or ruling class
  17. Serenade
    Classical instrumental genre that combines elements of chamber music and symphony, often performed in the evening or at social function
  18. Opera Seria
    Tragic Italian opera
  19. Offices (the Mass)
    Cycle of daily services of the Roman Catholic Church
  20. Tenor (in organum)
    Male voice of high range. Also a part, often structural, in polyphony
  21. Minstrels
    • a class of musicians who wandered among the courts and towns
    • lower class who played instruments, sang danced, juggled, and presented tricks and entertainment
  22. Chanson
    French monophonic or polyphonic song, especially of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, set to either courtly or popular poetry
  23. Cantus Firmus
    "Fixed melody," usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance
  24. Florentine Camerata
    • transition form Renaissance to Baroque
    • creators of monody
  25. recitative
    Solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio. Can be secco or accompagnato
  26. Ostinato
    A short, melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one
  27. Word Painting
    Musical pictorialization of words from the text as an expressive device; a prominent feature of the Renaissance madrigal
  28. Overture
    An introductory movement, as in an opera or oratorio, often presenting melodies from arias to come. Also an orchestral work for concert performance
  29. Imitation
    Melodic idea presented in one voice and then restated in another, each part continuing as others enter
  30. Canon
    Type of polyphonic composition in which one musical line strictly imitates another at a fixed distance throughout
  31. Cadenza
    Resting place in a musical phrase; music punctuation
  32. Rococo
    A term from the visual arts that is frequently applied to 18th-century French music, characterized by simplicity, grace, and delicate ornamentation
  33. The Viennese School
    Title given to the three prominent composers of the Classical era; Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
  34. Chamber Music
    Ensemble music for up to about 10 players, with one player to a part
  35. Italian Overture
    Baroque overture consisting of three sections: fast-slow-fast
  36. Opera Buffa
    Italian comic opera, sung throughout
  37. Mass Proper
    Sections of the Roman Catholic Mass that vary from day to day throughout the church year according to the particular liturgical occasion, as distinct from the Ordinary, in which they remain the same
  38. Ordinary Mass
    Central Service of the Roman Catholic Church
  39. Rhythmic Mode
    Fixed rhythmic patterns of long and short notes, popular in the 13th-century
  40. Troubadour
    Medieval poet-musicians in southern France
  41. Soft instruments
    (bas) indoor instruments of the Medieval period
  42. Loud instruments
    (haut) outdoor instruments of the Medieval period
  43. Mode
    Scale or sequence of notes used as the basis for a composition; major and minor are modes
  44. Figured Bass
    Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by he performer
  45. Aria
    Lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio
  46. Major-minor Tonality
    Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale
  47. Equal-Temperament
    Tuning system based on the division of the octave into 12 equal half steps; the system used today
  48. Chorale
    Congregational hymn of the German Lutheran church
  49. Episode (in a Fugue)
    Interlude or intermediate section in the Baroque fugue that serves as an area of relaxation between statements of the subject
  50. Multi-movement Cycle
    A three or four movement structure used in Classical-era instrumental music - especially the symphony, sonata, concerto - and in chamber music; each movement is in a prescribed tempo and form; sometimes called sonata cycle
  51. Empfindsamkeit
    German "sensitive" style of the mid-18th-century, characterized by melodic directness and homophonic texture
  52. Thematic Development
    Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm. Also, thematic transformation
  53. Divertimento
    Classical instrumental genre for chamber ensemble or soloist, often performed as light entertainment.
  54. Absolute Music
    Music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program. Also pure music.
  55. Singspiel
    Comic German drama with spoken dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera
  56. Trouvere
    Medieval poet-musicians in northern France
  57. Organum
    Earliest kind of polyphonic music, which developed from the custom of adding voices above a plainchant; they first ran parallel to it at the interval of a fifth or fourth and later moved more freely.
  58. Motet
    Polyphonic vocal genre, secular in the Middle Ages but sacred or devotional thereafter.
  59. Oratorio
    Large-scale dramatic genre originating in the Baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, costumes, or action.
  60. Opera
    Music drama that is generally sung throughout, combining the resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes.
  61. Madrigal
    Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem; also popular in England.
  62. Sonata
    Instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble.
  63. String Quartet
    The string quartet was one of the most common chamber ensembles. Its makeup is two violins, viola, and cello. Here, the first violin has the melody and the other three instruments provide accompaniment. Example: Haydn, String Quartet, Op. 76, No. 2, fourth movement
  64. Symphony
    Large work for orchestra, generally in three or four movements.
  65. Suite
    Multimovement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key. Also partita and ordre.
  66. Gregorian Chant
    Monophonic melody with a freely flowing, unmeasured vocal line; liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic Church. Also plainchant or plainsong.
  67. Concerto grosso
    Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments (the concertino) and orchestra (the ripieno).
  68. Cantata
    Vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative. It generally consists of several movements including recitatives, arias, and ensemble numbers.
  69. Da capo aria
    Lyric song in ternary, or A-B-A, form, commonly found in operas, cantatas, and oratorios.
  70. Fugue
    • Polyphonic form popular in the Baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint. A fugue is a complex composition in which the theme (called the subject) is developed by imitative counterpoint. In this example, the first imitation of the subject is heard overlapping the initial idea
  71. Rounded Binary
    Compositional form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material from the first; each section is usually repeated.
  72. Minuet and Trio
    A moderate triple-meter dance form with two main sections (minuet = A, trio = B) that often occurs as the third movement of a symphony.
  73. Development
    Structural reshaping of thematic material. Second section of sonata-allegro form; it moves through a series of foreign keys while themes from the exposition are manipulated.
  74. Double Exposition
    In the concerto, twofold statement of the themes, once by the orchestra and once by the soloist.
  75. Ternary Form
    Three-part (A-B-A) form based on a statement (A), contrast or departure (B), and repetition (A), Also three-part form.
  76. Ritornello Form
    A short recurring passage that unifies an instrumental or vocal work
  77. Sonata-allegro Form
    The opening movement of the sonata cycle, consisting of themes that are stated in the first section (exposition), developed in the second section (development), and restated in the third section (recapitulation). Also sonata form or first-movement form.
  78. Recapitulation
    Third section of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic. Also restatement.
  79. Theme and Variation
    Compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in successive statements; occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of a sonata cycle.
  80. Scherzo
    Composition in A-B-A form, usually in triple meter; replaced the minuet and trio in the nineteenth century.
  81. Binary Form
    Two-part (A-B) form is based on statement and departure. Also two-part form.
  82. Exposition
    Opening section. In the fugue, the first section in which the voices enter in turn with the subject. In sonata-allegro form, the first section in which the major thematic material is stated. Also statement.
  83. Coda
    The last part of a piece, usually added to a standard form to bring it to a close.
  84. Rondo
    Musical form in which the first section recurs, usually in the tonic. In the Classical sonata cycle, it appears as the last movement in various forms, including A-B-A-B-A, A-B-A-C-A, and A-B-A-C-A-B-A.
  85. Hildegard von Bingen
    • Germany
    • Period: Medieval
    • Genre: Gregorian Plainchant
    • monophonic music
  86. Guillaume de Machaut
    • France
    • Period: Medieval
    • Genre: Ars Nova tradition - chanson
    • monophonic and polyphonic music
  87. Josquin Desprez
    • France
    • Period: High Renaissance
    • Genre: Sacred Music - esp motet
  88. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
    • Italy
    • Period: Late Renaissance
    • Genre: Sacred Music, Mass (Gloria)
  89. J.S. Bach
    • Germany
    • Period: Baroque
    • Genre: cantata (composer and organist)
  90. G.F. Handel
    • born in Germany, English composer
    • Period: Baroque
    • Genre: composed in all genres but remembered most for his operas and oratorios
    • da capo aria
  91. Antonio Vivaldi
    • Italy
    • Period: Baroque
    • Genre: instrumental music and opera
    • important in the development of the concerto
    • transitioned from Baroque into Classical
  92. Claudio Monteverdi
    • Italy
    • Period: Baroque
    • Genre: opera
  93. Henry Purcell
    • English
    • Period: Baroque
    • Genre: Opera Dido and Aeneas
  94. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Austria
    • Period: Classical
    • Genre: master of all but known for opera especially
  95. Ludwig van Beethoven
    • Germany
    • Period: Classical to Romantic
    • Genre: symphony and piano sonata
  96. Joseph Haydn
    • Austria
    • Period: Classical
    • Genre: symphonies
  97. Medieval Music
    • 476-1450
    • Gregorian chant - monophonic, nonmetric melodies set in a church mode/scale
    • chants are either syllabic, neumatic, or melismatic
    • secular music was performed by troubadours (love/chivalry)
  98. Renaissance
    • 1450-1600
    • motet - sacred genre with a Latin devotional text
    • polyphonic genre
    • dance music
    • chansons and madrigals - aristocratic form of poetry and music that flourished in Italian courts
  99. Baroque
    • 1600-1750
    • texture changed to monody (one song)
    • rhythm, melody, dissonance, and less dynamic/dramatic
    • opera (Purcell)
    • oratorio (Handel) cantatas (Vivaldi) and chorales (Bach)
    • conertos (Bach)
  100. Classical
    • 1750-1825
    • Viennese school - Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Schubert
    • elegant, lyrical melodies
    • diatonic melodies
    • homophonic texture
  101. Tempo

    a tempo
    • solemn; very very slow
    • broad; very slow
    • quiet slow
    • walking pace
    • moderate
    • fast; cheerful
    • lively
    • very fast
    • getting faster
    • getting slower
    • returning to original pace
  102. Dynamics
    pianissimo (pp)
    piano (p)
    mezzo piano (mp)
    messo forte (mf)
    forte (f)
    fortissimo (ff)
    de crescendo
    • very soft
    • soft
    • moderately soft
    • moderately loud
    • loud
    • very loud
    • growing louder
    • growing softer
  103. Types of Ensembles - Choral Groups
    • a capella
    • madrigal
  104. Types of Ensembles - Instrumental Chamber Ensembles
    • string quartet
    • sonata
    • quintet(s)
  105. Types of Ensembles
    • Orchestra
    • Concert, Jazz, and Rock Bands
  106. Instrumental Families
    • String: violin, viola, cello, double bass
    • Woodwind: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, sax
    • Brass: trumpet, trombone, tuba
    • Percussion: drums, xylophone, tambourine, cymbals
    • Keyboard: piano, organ, harpsichord
  107. Standard Vocal Ranges
    • from highest to lowest
    • Male: tenor, baritone, bass
    • Female: soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto
  108. 3 Most Important Triads in Diatonic Harmony
    I, IV, and V
  109. Elements of Classical Style
    • sonata typically consists of 3 movements
    • In duo sonatas, the piano and solo instrument were often treated as equals
    • Conerto's typical scheme: fast-slow-fast
    • emotional restraint
    • Aristocratic audiences
    • a preference for absolute forms
    • diatonic harmony
    • symmetrical, balanced phrases
  110. 18th-Century Chamber Music Style
    • string quartet: 2 violins, a viola, a cello
    • ensemble music for up to 10 players with 1 player to a part
  111. Classical Orchestra (Symphony)
    • 4 movement structure
    • 1. Fast
    • 2. Slow
    • 3. Moderate dance
    • 4. Fast
  112. Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
    • Hildegard von Bingen
    • plainchant
    • Medieval
  113. Puis qu'en oubli
    • Guillaume de Machaut
    • Medieval
    • polyphonic chanson
  114. Ave Maria... virgo serena
    • Josquin Desprez
    • Renaissance
    • 4-voice motet
  115. Gloria from Missa Papae Marcelli
    • Palestrina
    • Renaissance
    • Mass; Gloria
  116. Three Dances
    • Susato
    • Renaissance
    • Ronde dance in duple meter
  117. Fair Phyllis
    • Farmer
    • Renaissance
    • English madrigal
  118. Dido's Lament aria When I am Laid to Rest
    • Purcell
    • Baroque
    • Opera
  119. Messiah, Nos. 18 and 44
    • Handel
    • Baroque
    • Oratorio
  120. A Mighty Fortress Is Our God
    • Bach
    • Baroque
    • 8 movements for chorus, soloists, and orchestra
  121. Spring, movement 1, from The Four Seasons
    • Vivaldi
    • Baroque
    • Concerto
  122. Water Music
    • Handel
    • Baroque
    • Dance suite
  123. Contrapunctus 1, from The Art of Fugue
    • Bach
    • Baroque
    • Fugue
  124. Eine kleine Nachtmusic, K. 525
    • Mozart
    • Classical
    • String quartet - i.e. chamber orchestra
  125. Symphony No. 94 in G major Surprise
    • Haydn
    • Classical
    • Orchestra
  126. Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67. First Movement
    • Beethoven
    • Classical
    • Symphony
  127. Trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, Third Movement
    • Haydn
    • Classical
    • Concerto
  128. Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No 2 Moonlight, First Movement
    • Beethoven
    • Classical
    • Piano Sonata
  129. The Marriage of Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro) Act I, Scenes 6 and 7
    • Mozart
    • Classical
    • Opera buffa
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MUSC 136 Exam 2
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